Bergen, April 20th 2005

IFLA Management & Marketing Section
Satellite meeting in Bergen 9th to 11th of August 2005
Trine Kolderup Flaten
Library director,
Bergen Public Library
Strømgaten 6,
5018 Bergen
Tlf (direct): + – fax: +


“Management, marketing, evaluation and promotion of library services,
based on statistics,
analyses and evaluation in your own library”.

In all: 39 papers

Bergen, April 20th2005

Trine Kolderup Flaten

INDEX contributers:

Ahmed, Ksibi
Alvite, Maria Luisa Diez (and Blanca Bravo Rodriguez)
Arahova, Antonia (and Sarantos Kapidakis)
Badra, Lamia
Baig, Shahid Masood (and Syed Attaullah Shah)
Bin, Dai (and Jiang Cong)
Broady-Preston, Judith (and Joanna Felice)
Carcedo, Elena Roseras
Cichani, Mehdi Karimian
Cong,. Jiang (and Dai Bin)
Crawford, John
Creaser, Claire (and J.Eric Davies)
Davies, J. Eric (and Claire Creaser)
Ferreiro, Soledad (and José Miguel Muga)
Felice, Joanna ( and Judith Broady-Preston)
Gendina, Natalia I.
Giappiconi, Thierry
Granfield, Diane (and Mark Robertson )
Hallam, Gillian (and Helen Partridge)
Huang, Michael B (and Ellen Maleszewski)
Høivik, Tord
Illien, Gildas
Imhoff, Kathleen
Kapidakis, Sarantos (and Antonia Arahova)
King, Helen
Koontz, Christie
Kwon, Nahyun
Latorre, Ignacio Zacarés (and Milagros Montón Ortells)
Liman, Latifa
Maleszewski, Ellen (and Michael B. Huang)
McKnight, Sue
Melo, Luiza Baptista
Miribel, Marielle de
Muga, José Miguel (and Soledad Ferreiro)
Ochôa, Paula (and Gaspar Pinto)
Ortells, Milagros Montón (and Ignacio Zacares Latorre)
Partridge, Helen (and Gillian Hallam)
Pinto, Leonor Gaspar (and Paula Ochôa)
Poissenot, Claude
Robertson, Mark ( and Diane Granfield)
Rodriguez, Blanca Bravo
Rosenfeldt, Debra
Rouissi, Jalel
Sen, Barbara Anne
Shah, Syed Attaullah
Singh, Rajesh
Smith, Rebecca (and Yoo-Seong Song)
Song, Yoo-Seong (and Rebecca Smith)
Tehrani, Farideh
Van Moorsel, Guillaume
Wilson, Myoung
Wimmer, Ulla
Aabø, Svanhild


Statistical indicators on reading and Literacy for “Information Society”versus the “technisist” Indices of ITU

Dr. Ksibi Ahmed
Prof of Institut Supérieur de Documentation de Tunis(a)
University of Manouba;

This essay is a synthesis of statistic data and a panoply of surveys upon the youth as the frequent majority users in the developing country.
The variables concerning their use of the Information and Communication New Technologies (ICNT) and their use of information sources allow us to state some significant interrogations related to the information society and digital divide.
We intend to suggest statistical indicators concerning the evolution of uses in frequenting libraries and the development of literacy besides the aptitudes in using the ICNT, the informational behaviors of the youth, as reference criteria for measuring the progress achieved by developing countries to reduce the digital devide and establish the best bases of cognitive society.
This hypothesis decreases relatively the dominating “technisist” approach adopted by the Digital Access Index (DAI) International Telecommunications Union (ITU) witch not take in account the indicators on reading though they are significant behaviors necessary for the establishment of a cultivated and innovating society
The DAI indicators are developed to follow the objectives the Plan of Action of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS Geneva 2003) wich emphasizes the establishment of a compound indice for measuring the information society.
As a matter of face the ITU the United Nations institution leading this World Summit instead of the UNESCO is an expression of the “technico-ecnomic “ tendency towards the facilitation of the integration of the ICNT in our societies and the will to equip the whole planet with the computers to allow economic progress by means of opening new markets.
This domination technicist tendency ( see all the official literature on the information society) is expressed by the indicators of the ITU witch gives more privilege to the measurement of infrastructures development ( telephony services, number of PC, number of Internet users ) to classify countries rather than the information cultural behaviors.
This quantitative indice DAI as conceived by the ITU is more orientated towards the economic output , the users affordability and the investment. Consequently the digital divide between the industrialized countries and the developing countries especially the marginalized ones is imperfectly measured by The results of the ITU 's indice. Beside the anti-globalization movement, the dominated approach is insignificantly contested and the quantitative indicators are rarely discussed. By criticizing the DAI, my proposal attemps to go over the data oriented “equipment” and enhances the debate on the outstanding human factors in order to take them into account as the basic elements of the informational environment of the observed country.
The indicator of the behaviors of users and information research practices of libraries resources (Registered Users, documents loans…) as expressed by statistic variables of UNESCO and the Library Performance statistic Indicators of the ISO 11620 besides the LIBECON statistical system in Europe .For the most part the youth are the strategic users categories who are the frequent majority users of libraries and who posses ability to access and use ICTs, the basis to establish the information society in developing countries. Statistic indicators of these categories of users must be introduced in order to elaborate realistic international system to follow up performance evaluation and benchmarking (both qualitative and quantitative) of the information behaviors change.
We can put aside hurried and premature statistical modelization by emphasizing the variety of behaviors and attitudes of strategic users categories and identifiying the specific usages of ICTs and libraries. The sugged approach is similar to the measure tendancies giving a privilege to the practice and the “e-readness” developed by several research center. Specifities in the information society should be multiple .though this criticism, though modest, of the limit of certain indicators, we we could have a strategic outlook in a re-defining the indicators of the information society we want plural societies and concentrated on the socio-cultural variables and notr on the technological
The conception and the realization of documentary and information services are based on the knowledge of strategic users categories.
The development of documentary organizations and the information retrieval systems presuppose the revision of concepts , techniques of investigation (statistic indicators) in library science and information sciences where the theoretical and practical approaches remainsufficient

Indicateurs statistiques de la lecture et la littératie pour « la société de l’information »face aux indices « technicistes » de l’UIT

Cet essai est une synthèse des données statistiques et d’une panoplie d’enquêtes auprès des jeunes, usagers fréquemment majoritaires dans les pays en développement. Les variables concernant leurs usages des Nouvelles Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication (NTICs) et leurs utilisations des sources d’information nous permet d’émettre quelques hypothèses significatives concernant la société de l’information et la fracture numérique.
Il s’agit de proposer des indicateurs statistiques concernant l’évolution des pratiques de fréquentation des bibliothèques et du développement de la littératie et les capacités d’usage des Nouvelles Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication (NTICs), des comportements informationnelles des jeunes, comme critères de référence pour mesurer les progrès réalisés par les pays en développement pour réduire la fracture numérique et établir les meilleurs soubassements d’une société de l’information cognitive
Cette hypothèse relativise l’approche techniciste dominante adoptée par l’index sur l'accès numérique (DAI Digital Access Index) de l’UIT l’Union Internationale des Télécommunications qui omet les indicateurs sur la lecture et la littératie qui sont pourtant les comportements nécessaires pour former une société cultivée et innovante .
Les indicateurs de connectivité communautaire DAI sont élaborés par l’UIT en application des dispositions du plan d’action du Sommet mondial de la société de l'information (SMSI Genève 2003) qui préconise d’instituer un indice composite de «Mesure de la société de l'information».
D’ailleurs le choix de l’UIT l’institution onusienne organisatrice du SMSI au détriment de l’UNESCO traduit la tendance « technico-économique »devant faciliter l’intégration des NTICs dans toutes nos sociétés et souligne par la même la volonté d’équiper d’ordinateurs la planète toute entière afin de permettre la croissance économique par l’ouverture de nouveaux marchés .
Cette tendance techniciste dominante ( voir la littérature officielle sur la société de l’information) s’exprime dans sa forme la plus manifeste par les indicateurs de l’UIT qui privilégient la mesure du développement des infrastructures(les services de la téléphonie, le nombre de PC pour, le nombre des utilisateurs d’Internet) pour classer les pays au dépens de la dimension des pratiques culturelles de l’information
Cet indice quantitatif DAI tel qu’il est conçu par l’UIT est trop orienté vers la rentabilité économique, la solvabilité des usagers et les retours sur investissements. Par conséquent, la fracture numérique entre les pays industrialisés et les pays en développement surtout les plus marginalisés (Afrique et Moyen-Orient) est imparfaitement mesurée par l’indice de l’UIT. En dehors des cercles alter-mondialistes, il existe très peu de contestation de l’approche dominante et encore moins, bien sur, de remise en cause de ces indicateurs quantitatifs. Par la remise en cause du DAI ma proposition tente de dépasser les données orientées « équipement » et ainsi de susciter le débat sur les facteurs humains déterminants pour prendre en compte des éléments fondateurs de l’environnement informationnel du pays observé.
Les indicateurs des habitudes et les comportements d’utilisations des sources et des ressources de bibliothèques (Nbre d’inscrits à la bibliothèque, Nbre d’ouvrages empruntés) et des actions minimes autour de la maîtrise de l’informatique, telles qu’ils sont exprimés par les statistiques de l’UNESCO et les indicateurs de performance dans la norme ISO 11620 et par le système européen LIBECON des statistiques des services de bibliothèques comportent des indicateurs pour des conditions informationnelles propres à chaque pays .
Ce sont surtout les jeunes, qui sont les catégories stratégiques des usagers fréquemment majoritaires des bibliothèques et qui possèdent les capacités d’usage des NTICs , la base de la réalisation d’une société de l’information dans les pays en développement . Des indicateurs statistiques comparables de ces catégories d’usagers doivent être introduits pour élaborer un système international réaliste de suivi et d'évaluation (à la fois qualitative et quantitative), des changements du comportement informationnel .
Il s’agit de réfuter une modélisation statistique hâtive en mettant en exergue la diversité des comportements et des attitudes informationnelles des jeunes et de connaître leurs usages spécifiques aussi bien des (NTIC) que leurs des bibliothèques. L’approche proposée est celle des différentes tendances de mesures, privilégiant les usages et la « e-readiness », développées par plusieurs centres de recherches mettant en exergue les spécificités dans la société d’information.
A travers ces remises en cause, même limitées, de l’étroitesse de certains indicateurs, on aurait alors une visée stratégique dans la redéfinition des indicateurs de la société de la connaissance qui devrait être multiple plurielle et se concentrer plutôt sur les aspects «socioculturels » que sur les aspects technologique.
La base de la conception et de la réalisation des bibliothèques virtuelles est une connaissance approfondie des catégories stratégiques des usagers. le développement d’organisations documentaires communicationnelles et de systèmes de repérage de l’information présuppose une réadaptation des concepts, des techniques d’investigation dans les disciplines bibliothéconomiques et des sciences de l’information, où l’effort théorique reste encore insuffisant.

Parameters and indicators for providers of electronic publications evaluation.

María Luisa Alvite Díez and Blanca Rodríguez Bravo
Área de Biblioteconomía y Documentación.
Facultad de Filosofía y Letras
University de León

The specific aims of this paper is to present an evaluation model and to share a methodology for the analysis comparative of information distributed, characteristics of interfaces and various functions and added value services of providers of electronic publications. This model has been applied to: Emerald, Kluwer Online, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, Taylor & Francis and Wiley InterScience in order to test the validity of the methodology proposed. This analysis would permit the acquisition of trustworthy information on the nature and quality of these systems.
The study was undertaken within the framework of a research project financed by the University of Leon for the years 2004/2005. The chief objective of this project is to gain an overall knowledge of the provision of electronic information, its distribution and use by the academic community so as to allow universities and their libraries to negotiate with the large multinationals in the publishing sector on the basis of objective criteria on quality and utilization.

After revising the literature of information retrieval systems evaluation, the process of analysis was organized around four parameters, within which there were a number of grouped indicators as sub?parameters:

A) Extension of Contents

· Horizontal Coverage: Volume of electronic publications.

· Thematic Coverage: Collections of scientific disciplines.

· Vertical Coverage: Retrospective reach of the contents.

B) Access Structure

· Access Control Systems Used: Passwords, IP address authentication, digital certification and privileged users (superusers).

· Search and Navigation Performance: The levels and fields for searches, retrieval language, record of searches, browsing or navigation categories, fields with hypertext links, granularity of searches, and so forth.

· Presentation of Results: Descriptive data, criteria for ordering results and possibilities of ordering them, formats of publications, display of associated graphs and pictures, and similar.

C) Characteristics of the Interface

· Design: Correct display, suitable layout for information, highlighting of elements, use of intuitively understandable forms and the like.

· Ergonomics: Characteristics and capacity for selection of items, speed and reliability of download and printing of entries, languages available and possibilities for personalizing the access page.

· User-friendliness: Syntax of messages, error messages, nature and suitability of user guides and help systems, possible system tips, and so forth.

D) Functions and Added Value Services

· Licensing Modes: Transparency of information and applicable law, contract availability for publications independently of subscription to the printed format, types of licence, guarantees offered to the licensee, rights to back?numbers, policies for digitizing, safety and privacy of data, multi?site use and access from outside the institution.

· Functions: User registers, quotation systems, keyword notification services, quotation alert functions and linking techniques used.

Added Value Services: Teaching packages, new item sections, service to librarians, service to authors, integration with library services, standardization, statistical reports, and similar.

Promoting Library Services, Designing Marketing Strategies, Evaluating our Past and our Present, Feeling more Optimistic about our Libraries Future

Antonia Arahova
National Library of Greece
Ionio University

Sarantos Kapidakis
National Library of Greece
Ionio University

Our paper includes a proposed model related to statistics according to the Greek public and academic libraries. We demonstrate evaluation practices and mainly best-practice and “best-vision” strategy encouraging the improvement in the provision of library services not only in Greece but in a generally implemented framework. Greece is making a great effort to achieve a continuous improvement of the libraries' services. The paper aims to demystify marketing for librarians. Practical solutions are provided on how to implement a marketing strategy, with particular emphasis on the value of using electronic information resources. It also shows the link between promoting library services and raising the profile of the library.
In an age where we need to compete among the myriad of Internet content providers and fight for the limited attention span of our library patrons, marketing and promotion of our services are paramount to our best well-being. While special libraries may tailor their services to their specific target audience, public libraries and academic libraries, by definition, is catered to the general public and to the big academic and student community at large. Because of their heterogeneous market, satisfying the customers’ needs of public and academic libraries can be very challenging. So, with the active collaboration with The Greek Ministry of Education and especially with The Special Secretary for Libraries and Archives, we gathered statistics and attention is given to the following parameters:
Understanding Customer’s Needs
Community Profiling

And as a consequence designing:
Market Segmentation
Marketing Plan
Marketing Audit
Objectives and Strategies

A good marketing plan begins with a mission statement that defines the objectives of the library or the information centre, which includes an identification of the target market segments. Realistic and measurable targets set should be subjected to ongoing evaluation process as part of the marketing plan, and used to adjust or revise the marketing activities. Evaluations can be in the form of official measurement systems including financial accounting, computerized usage tracking, user satisfaction surveys, or the less structured methods of verbal or written feedback from users.
As librarians we should be actively marketing and promoting our library services. The basic aim of marketing is to know and understand our users in order that the library is able to satisfy those needs in an effective way. A marketing plan is an essential tool which will enable us to focus our efforts. The market plan should assess where you are now (market research), where you are going (objectives) and how you are going to get there (strategies).

LOCAL officials response to evaluation practice in PUBLIC LIBRARIES: the main stakes and challenges in france

Dr. Lamia BADRA (Maître de Conférences)
Director of the IUP Métiers du Livre et Multi-supports
University of Blaise Pascal ,

What are the emerging performance of libraries required by government officials in charge of public services? how should librarians in the precise case of public libraries improve their management to meet their elects’ expectation? and what are the expertise and recommendations of government official evaluation institutions that product yearly statistics about libraries and their services? These are the main issues the paper asks to identify from the government officials’ viewpoints, the recent challenges of evaluation practice in French Public libraries. Under my direction, four trainees from the ENSSIB (Ecole Nationale Supérieure en Sciences de l’Information et des Bibliothèques) that succeeded the competitive national entry and intended after training to work in territorial libraries, held a survey from mars to may 2004. This study concerned 164 communal elects as well as three of the DLL’s (Direction du Livre et de la Lecture) representatives of the Minister of Culture. The objective of this study is to check whether librarians and their local officials in France apprehend performance and evaluation in theory and practice alike. First, the paper describes the particular institutional context of public libraries to justify the problem addressed and the methodology chosen in the study. It defines the primary missions, outcomes and services quality from local officials’ perspectives. Then the paper provides an overview of their critical aspects of the methods, strategies, indicators and data collection developed by practitioners to show their performance. In particular, the study reveals that cost does not show up as a priority to elects. However, applying public management with a heavy emphasis on planning and environment studies seems to be a key factor of evaluating performance. The paper concludes that further communication about performance evaluation between librarians and government officials is required. It is the practitioner’s role to give a sense to his evaluation practice so that to support budget and/or public policy decisions made by local officials.

Digital Library Services and its Impact with reference to Developing Countries: A Case of Faculty of Health Sciences Library, Aga Khan University.

Syed Attaullah Shah
FHS. Library
Aga Khan University (AKU)
Karachi-Pakistan &

Prof. Dr. Shahid Masood Baig
Aga Khan University

Azra Qureshi
Aga Khan University

Introduction: Digital libraries play a vital role in providing more appropriate information in less time with ease of access. A digital library is more near to user’s minds, and paves a bridge between the sea of information and users needs. We explored the new sources and media of information. Material in different formats i.e. audio, video, image etc. especially in CDs are more important to understand medical information. Non-book material i.e. reports, conference papers, introductory material etc. are also very useful to cope with latest developments in the medical field. New services are evaluated by the users of AKU Library by conducting a Users survey; so that the users must be competent in their ability at the point of service to distill data into useful information to access growing information in different formats and to meet the ever increasing patient care needs. As the result of the survey, we could strengthen the systems and services; and the library users will also know and access required information and there is no need to waste time and money both in visiting other libraries to acquire needed information.

Objective: The objective of this paper is to discuss the developments in repository, User Interface and Operational systems of the library and its impact on the users.

Methodology and Procedural Detail: The purpose of paper is to share the expanding designed models, new developmental practices and their evaluation at AKU library’s services for the digital library.
Repository Tier: Two types of repository 1) Store the information about the software agents such as programs and the symbols and identifications of data formats. 2) Store the full text data of library holdings such as audio, video, image, text and further links separately in a server, from the CDs and other recourses. In non-Book material such as the citation of reports, introductory material, conference papers, dissertations etc…by using Informix and SQL server databases running under UNIX and Windows respectively.
User Interface Tier: two major types of user interface module are designed according to the search requirements of the users. 1) CD Library, it deals to retrieve data by author, title, keyword etc…form different formats of material such as audio, video, text, image etc…without opening and browsing any CD with the capability of running the full document by using Active Server Pages (ASP). 2) Non-book material, it deals with the documents which were under utilized before this system. By this new system all type of gray and fugitive material can be accessed. For non-book library a separate classification scheme is designed and applied successfully. A manual multi approaches storage and retrieval process system is designed to physically access the material by using different searching tools via material type, subject heading, organization and Call no.
(SDI) Service - Operational Tier: In the system the software matches acquiring documents with the users preference and generate and send an email to the selected users. To run this Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) service Informix is using under UNIX.

Conclusion: Three major digital services were initiated at Aga Khan University, FHS library during the year 2004,
1) CD library. 2) Non-book material and 3) SDI Service. After few months use of these new electronic services; a survey of library users was conducted. As the result of survey, we evaluated new services and collected statistics of increasing number of users of digital contents. Benefits for health practitioners, students and researchers, and some problems with suggestions are also discussed.

Keywords: Digital Library, CD Library, Non-book Material, SDI (Selective Dissemination of Information) Services, User Services

Invite Readers to Join Assessment - the Organization and Application of Reader questionnaire

Dai Bin
Research librarian
Library of North China Electric Power University, Beijing

Jiang Cong
Post-graduate student
Capital Normal University, Beijing,

Keywords: Library assessment, reader questionnaire, statistic analysis

When you enter a library, the most you will read are publicities of kinds of books and magazines. While in commercial circumstances, you will have a catalogue as well as a reader questionnaire, and also usually in magazines. However, such questionnaire is seldom given in daily works of libraries unless we really want to do a questionnaire. On the Internet, one can log into any chat room, and express one’s opinions freely. It seems people nowadays addict to the Internet, but it needs expensive applications. Though Libraries are brighter and more spacious than the Internet, and have more reading rooms and more librarians, why can not libraries attain to Internet functions? Here are three reasons: libraries need quiet; readers are fond of searching books themselves; and oriental people are introversive. Communication between readers and librarians is few. Readers do come to librarians unless they need help eagerly. Questionnaire can be close to readers mind.
Reader questionnaire is a long term way for librarian communicating with readers. Ticks can instead of complex words saying; readers only ask 1-2 questions at a time, but questionnaires can broaden their mind and questions, and also give librarians more information about readers’ requirements. Making questionnaires is a feasible and practical way, and a traditional way of communication. According to different reader requirements, different questionnaires can be made. Topics can cover many aspects. They could be shown with catalogues in a standing place in the library with a recovery box aside. If readers have any suggestion or advice, they would not choose catalogues, but questionnaires. In a word, questionnaire is a way of assessment, but we use it little.
There are lots of service items in universities libraries, and many of them can make readers questionnaires. We can choose problems that most readers confront with, and can also deal with problems only faced by a few people. Resources of researches on reader questionnaire are from traditional and on-Internet questionnaires. Communication could be made, so long as we do questionnaires.
The main readers in universities’ libraries are teachers and students. They are the direct beneficiaries of literatures, so they are the spokesmen of the literatures. It is a problem that in the work of library assessment, the people who usually join in are experts in different fields of learning, but seldom readers. If we attach importance to questionnaires as merchants do,have reader index in the assessment regulations, fix the times questionnaires should do, consult information from original questionnaires readers have done when we do the work, we will do better in our assessment and in our service.
Questionnaire should be made according to readers’ requirements. It could be changed. Some are practical so that can use longer; others are not functional and less taken, then we can revise it. Questionnaire can be considered as different program of psychotherapy as we do library service. Traditional library is an old man since it has more than 100 years; digital library is a child since it just be born for few years. Questionnaire is like effective prescription, to use readers growing requirements to cure deficiency of libraries service, and perfect the libraries work. Readers’ requirements are the “psychotherapy” for libraries growing up.
Appendix in the article: kinds of reader questionnaires and statistic analysis

Building better customer relationships: University of Malta, a case study

Dr Judith Broady-Preston
Department of Information Studies
University of Wales

Joanna Felice
Reference Department
University of Malta Library, Malta.

This paper will report the results of a research project, conducted during 2003/4, which examined the relationship between the University community and the University Library in Malta. In the period 1999-2003, the University of Malta (UoM) increased its student population from 5,148 in 1999 to 9,203 in 2003 (Bezzina), together with an expansion in academic staff numbers from 490 Full Time Equivalents (FTEs) in 1999 to 543 FTEs in 2003 (Gatt). However, the UoM Library’s annual reports revealed that book loans decreased from 158,204 in 1999 to 121,627 in 2003 (Mangion 27,43); a 23% decline over 5 years. Thus, at a time of great expansion within the University, there was no concomitant increase in library usage, but rather a decline on previous usage levels. Therefore, a research project was established to investigate the relationship between the library and its user population, examining:

How academic, non-academic staff and students acquired relevant information. The degree to which library services, staff, products and prices affected user relationships with the library.
Whether creating an electronic relationship between library users and information providers, adopting a customer relationship management (CRM) and communities of practice (CoP) approach would improve relationships and increase library usage.

Relationships consisting of a series of transactions between library staff and users will be of differing lifetimes within an academic environment, ranging from the relatively short-term one between librarians and students, to a potentially long-term one between academics and librarians (Rowley 45). Communities of Practice (CoP) are groups of people
“who share an interest in a domain of knowledge” (De Cagna 6).
Developing CoPs in Universities is of especial importance, as they ensure that the intellectual capital created is shared and used effectively. By creating an online community, librarians may facilitate this knowledge sharing process.

Data were collected and analysed from six focus groups from the amongst the University population - four for library user (academics, non-academics, post-graduates, and undergraduates) and two for service providers (senior and junior library staff).

Mapping the results against the three principal aims outlined above, we found that:
academic and non-academic staff had access to information providers who were fulfilling their requirements more efficiently than the library. Moreover, as academics were already members of CoPs, this enabled them to acquire information from conferences, overseas colleagues, journals and so forth. Students were benefiting from these communities as peripheral participants. Thus, the University library was no longer of central importance in the provision of information to the university community.
the demand for information resources (product) was greater than the availability of the existing resources, causing a decrease in customer satisfaction and retention.
the development of a technology infrastructure, the strengthening of the collections, the training of staff and customers and the collaboration between academics and subject specialists were considered essential prerequisites for the future development of library services.

Management and marketing in the Library and Documentation Centre of Artium, Basque Centre-Museum of Contemporary Art

Elena Roseras Carcedo
Library and Documentation Department Manager
ARTIUM, Basque Centre-Museum of Contemporary Art

Devising a marketing programme in the Library and Documentation Centre of Artium involves a number of different tasks such as analysing library resources and services, drafting strategic marketing plans and establishing an evaluation programme to enable us to assess the extent to which our goals have been achieved.

Firstly, an evaluation model has been established to ensure the total quality of the services offered by the library. The aim of the methodology used to assess the quality of the services offered is to obtain objective information of a quantitative and qualitative nature and in a systematic manner, as a basis for the decisions to be taken in this Centre in the future.

The marketing programme also includes a comparison of the products and services offered by the library with those available on the market. This will allow us to develop the appropriate programmes in accordance with specific user groups.

The systematic evaluation of programmes represents an essential element in the management of the library. In accordance with the comprehensive approach that we wish to give the evaluation process, this does not begin when the activities end but before these are planned and while they are being carried out.

The Iranian Consultative Assembly Library, Museum and Documentation Center (ICALIB)

Mehdi Karimian Cichani
Technical deputy
Iranian Consultative Assembly Library
Museum and Documentation Center

The main goal of the Iranian Consultative Assembly Library, Museum and
Documentation Center (ICALIB) is to acquire the legal, political,
cultural, economic and social works mainly on Iran and Islam,
preservation of the national heritage in order to serve the MPs, the
researchers from inside and outside the country, the university students
and the public.

The ICALIB is managed based on the process-based management; i.e., the
library system is focused on the progress of the process of the
activities. The process starts with the client’s request and ends with
the satisfaction of the client by getting appropriate and on-time
services, of course with high quality. It will be easier to understand
the process through planning its map and planning a sharp map of the
process, changes the processes to measurable activities.

On the other hand, by determining the standards of the tasks and
activities, the library staff and/or teamworks can evaluate their own
functions and this, by itself, causes the cooperation among the
contribution of the staff and the overall success of the organization.

To enhance the efficiency and effectiveness in the personal, hierarchical
and organizational levels, in addition to finding the educational needs,
it should be tried to step in the way of the permanent development. The
variety of the clients’ needs, the ever enhancement of the clients’
qualitative and quantitative level of expectations, on one hand, and the
changing of the information resources and the necessity of answering the
communicational needs, on the other hand, cause the filling of the lack
of the necessary trainings and also the enhancement of the educational
rate, at least, along with the rate of the social and cultural changes.

From secondary school to the world of work: the experience of evaluating Information Literacy skills development at Glasgow Caledonian University (GCU)

Dr. John Crawford
Library Research Officer
Glasgow Caledonian University

Glasgow Caledonian University has a substantial background in survey and evaluation work extending over some ten years – see website and also
Crawford, John Reviewing a programme of evaluation in an academic library: the case of Glasgow Caledonian University, Performance measurement and metrics, June, 2003, vol. 4 , no.3, 2003, pp. 113-121.
More recently the library was one of the first ten participants in the LIRG/SCONUL Value and Impact study (2003-2004) in which GCU chose to focus on the impact of electronic information services on users. The outcomes have been published in three articles and, in a separate project, the Library also worked with a secondary school in a deprived area of Glasgow to assess ICT skill levels among the pupils (the Drumchapel Project).
The outcomes of all these studies have led to a need to focus on the information literacy agenda because very variable skill levels were identified in both the secondary and tertiary sectors. A need to understand the relationship between information skills teaching in the secondary and tertiary sectors was also identified.
The application centres around reporting on the results of two surveys which were undertaken as part of the LIRG/SCONUL Value and Impact Study:
a survey of EIS/IL skills among undergraduates and a study of alumni (former students who have now graduated). The undergraduate study supports the previous view of steady if uneven progress across different subject areas but also cites as factors the pervasiveness of IT systems in the tertiary sector and their growth in the secondary sector. The subset of data comprising responses from first year students is especially useful as it gives a perspective on new students IL skills. The alumni questionnaire data emphasises the growing importance of information literacy in the workplace and the important role of the University in developing it. Considerable gratitude and respect for the role of GCU was expressed by respondents drawn from all over the world. Information literacy and the student employability agenda have been facilitated by the University and its services.
The two surveys together give an ‘all through’ picture of IL skills at GCU from new students who have only just completed secondary education, through to the world of work and the application there of IL skills learned at GCU. IL practice and evaluation tends to be sector specific and the research aims to encourage a more holistic approach to research and development in the subject area with a view to developing a holistic agenda which will extend from school experience to a lifetime of work. The research will encourage further development in this new and challenging area.
At the time of applying a new research project has begun, reviewing the relationship between IL skills training in the secondary and tertiary sectors, and interim findings on this work will also be reported on. The data collected is also being used to inform the further development of GCU’s ICT/IL training programme.

Taking A Measured Approach to Library Management: Performance Evidence Applications and Culture

Claire Creaser
Deputy Director and Senior Statistician
Research School of Informatics,
Loughborough University

Dr. J.E. Davies
Research School of Informatics
Loughborough University

Performance evidence plays an important role in the management of modern information and library services. Managers seek to achieve an array of objectives and undertake a whole range of activities. How well they manage is influenced by access to appropriate and reliable supporting evidence and their capacity to utilise it intelligently. This paper outlines the general context of managing through performance evidence and draws on experience acquired by LISU, firstly to discuss how a culture of managing with performance evidence may be developed in an organisation and, secondly to describe, with examples from different organisations, the scope for applying performance evidence to service development.

Information and library services facilitate access to information, they provide space for the community to engage individually or collectively with information and they offer stimulus through a range of formal activities. Information and library services serve as many faceted agencies because their user community draws upon them for learning, leisure, work and living. These represent a formidable array of functions and demands. Performance evidence, built on a solid foundation of service goals, has an important contribution to make to their management. The portfolio of performance data is vast and varied and ranges from hard quantitative data to the softer social indicators that are growing in importance and relevance.

The successful application of performance metrics to managing services relies on an awareness of their potential coupled with the skills to apply them. LISU has worked with one library and information service on an extensive programme to develop an evidence based management culture at all levels in the organisation. The project has entailed an analysis of strategies and operations, an examination of evidence gathering and use, and it has featured training workshops and service assessment health checks performed by LISU. The outcomes are encouraging in terms of the utilisation of performance evidence and service quality as the examples in the paper illustrate.

Performance Health Checks offer a tangible way of assessing the position of a service in relation to internal targets as well as national standards. Extracts from LISU’s work in this area are presented to illustrate specific service improvement and development over a time frame.

Performance metrics also enable the overall performance of specific projects and initiatives to be assessed. LISU was engaged in the development of a toolkit to support the evaluation of a series of reader promotion activities in the UK. The evaluation covered a whole range of factors including inputs and outputs as well as impact assessment through data regarding user reactions. Examples indicate how the evidence identified the success of the activities and facilitated advocacy to support for further work.

Benchmarking using appropriate performance evidence enables useful comparisons to be made with similar organisations. The challenge is to identify suitable comparators which are similar in size, character and culture. Strategic benchmarking explores a series of key service parameters are to assess overall performance. Process benchmarking compares and reviews the detailed aspects of specific activities and methods in organisations and it implies a level of collaborative exchange of data. Both approaches offer considerable scope for identifying areas for development and improvement as well as evidence for advocacy, as examples illustrate.

The paper concludes with an observation that managers need to become even more active in anticipating the need for, and using appropriate performance evidence.

A Methodology for Innovation at the Library of the Chilean National Congress

Mrs. Soledad Ferreiro
Library's Director of the Chilean National Congress

Mr. José Miguel Muga
Director's Adviser

A Method for Innovation at the Chilean Library of Congress

Since September 2003, the Chilean Library of the National Congress (BCN) is involved in a deep management change, from an information product administration to a customer (in particular, the parliamentary community) relationships administration.
For the BCN this has meant generating a new operational model to manage the service and product parameters.

In such a perspective, the BCN has favored the identification of contacts with its clients, the acknowledgement of each interaction and the associated experience. As an example, the concern about the numbers of times a book is requested has been replaced with the number of books requested by the client. In general terms, the BCN privileges to acknowledge its interactions and experiences with each client.

This approach to management has shown a critical and challenging problem: a significant number of non users or low frequency users within our community.

To approach this recent problem (– of long ago but recently revealed problem--), we have dealt with a specific methodology for listening and identifying opportunities to create services for solving non users dissatisfaction and conflict. The next step is to develop innovative products to transform them into active and demanding users.

Adding value to the parliamentary community shows how the institutional process of Re- Invention the Library is undergoing .

The paper to be presented in Bergen, Norway, 2005, shares these major outlook and innovation processes.

Coordination of higher educational institutions and professional library associations – the key to training quality rise of librarians of XXI century

Natalia I. Gendina
Director of Research and Development
Institute of Information technologies of Social Sphere
Cameroon State University of Culture and Arts
Doctor of pedagogical sciences, Professor

The main preconditions of library education’s renovation are information society establishing, global informatization, rapid development of ICT, realization of information resources as strategical resource of the society, the change of educational paradigm from “education to the rest of life” to “education during the rest of life”, strengthening of library role as the most important social institution providing access to knowledge and information.

The content renovation of library education, training quality rise of library staff is the subject of interest for both higher educational institutions providing highly qualified library specialists’ training and professional library community. The result of this work depends on a productive dialogue between the educational institutions and organizations expressing the requirements of professional community to the level of graduates’ training. The most important corporate organization of professional community of librarians is library association. The main problem lies in the development of working mechanism of coordination of educational institutions and library associations. It gets a special acuteness under conditions of development and introduction of state educational standards.

During the last decade in Russia the activity of standardization of education including a library one got development. Standardization is deeply connected with renovation of the content of education. Thus, instead of the speciality “Librarianship and bibliography” traditionally taught by the Institutes of Culture and Arts in Russia since 2003 they started training staff in a new speciality “Library-information activity”. The standard provides training graduates in such qualifications as “Librarian-bibliographer, teacher”, “Manager of information resources”, “Technologist of automated information resources” within above-mentioned speciality.

For the first time there was close coordination between developers of educational standards and professional library community – Russian Library Association (RLA) which provided a possibility of a large-scale professional discussion of standards and attraction leading specialists of library-information activity as experts.

However mutual activity demanded the perfection of coordination mechanism of educational institutions, libraries and RLA. The solution of the problem of advanced quality of library staff training requires its stratification:

· Level of educational institutions: development of scientific base of the content of curricula; creation of text-books and educational instruction materials for library-information staff’s training;
· Level of RLA: generalization and expressing libraries’ requirements to qualification level and quality of library-information staff’s training; organization of discussion and examination of standards, instruction books and text-books in the sphere of library education at the RLA sessions and in RLA Newsletter;
· Level of libraries: development and introduction requirements to qualification and quality of information-library specialists’ training; participation in examination of educational standards, text and instructional books.

In my opinion, the problem of coordination of educational institutions and professional library associations are not of national but of international character

La question de l’évaluation des bibliothèques publiques soulève de nombreux problèmes d’ordre méthodique et technique

Thierry Giappiconi
Conservateur en chef
Directeur de la Bibliothèque municipale de Fresnes

Sur le plan méthodique, la principale question demeure celle de la définition explicite des missions, buts et objectifs d’une bibliothèque publique : quel bénéfice la bibliothèque doit-elle apporter à la communauté. Si la réponse est plus ou moins évidente pour les bibliothèques universitaires, elle l’est moins pour les bibliothèques publiques où apparaissent des réponses très diversifiées, sinon opposées. La phase préalable de toute évaluation, est donc de définir des objectifs concrets et non équivoques avec leurs autorités de tutelle et leurs partenaires. C’est alors, et alors seulement, qu’il leur sera possible d’analyser les besoins de la population à desservir (au regard de ces objectifs), puis d’évaluer les résultats et les impacts de leur action afin d’ajuster l’offre documentaire et de service, et de rendre compte à ses mandants (autorité politique, population, partenaires, etc.), de l’effet et impact des actions entreprises, du bon emploi des ressources attribuées ; bref de démontrer que la bibliothèques est une institution utile à la société et que l’argent public à été employé de la façon la plus efficace possible. Ce faisant, le management des bibliothèques met ainsi en œuvre des méthodes associant politiques publiques et mercatique.

Les principes méthodiques mis en place, il est alors possible d’aborder les aspects techniques pour adapter aux besoins politiques et stratégiques du management de la bibliothèque.
Dans la réalisation des tableaux de bord, l’apport des systèmes d’information géographiques, s’avère tout particulièrement adapté.
A cet égard, l’intérêt des systèmes d’information géographique est double :

· Il constitue une base de donnée dont les informations peuvent être comparées (sous réserve d’harmonisation), avec celle de la bibliothèque ;
· Il permet une représentation graphique et simple de données complexes et permet de faire ainsi de l’évaluation une pratique naturelle et non une charge de travail supplémentaire.

C’est pourquoi, s’inspirant des voies ouvertes par Christie Koontz, la bibliothèque de Fresnes (France) développe, en coopération avec le département du Val de Marne, la connexion de son système d’information et de gestion de bibliothèque avec un système d’information géographique. Cette expérimentation vise à doter chaque membre du personnel d’un tableau de bord lui permettant de suivre son action sur chaque composante du territoire, comme par exemple :

· Pourcentage de la population d’une tranche d’âge déterminée de chaque fréquentant la bibliothèque ;
· Répartition par quartier de l’usage des différents segments de la collection ;
· Toutes combinaisons de données relatives aux usagers, aux services et au collections, utiles à l’évaluation du niveau de succès d’un objectif préalablement défini.

C’est le compte rendu de cette expérimentation, appuyé sur une démonstration qui sera présenté à Bergen.

The question of the evaluation of the public libraries raises many problems of a methodical and technical nature.

On the methodical level, the principal question remains that of the explicit definition of the missions, goals and objectives of a public library: which benefit the library must it bring to the community. If the answer is more or less obvious for the university libraries, it is it less for the public libraries where appear much diversified answers… if not opposite. The preliminary phase of any evaluation, is thus to define concrete objectives and not ambiguities with their Official Authorities and their partners. It is then, and then only, that it will be possible for them to analyze the needs for the population to serve (taking into consideration these objective), then to evaluate the results and the impacts of their action in order
to adjust the documentary offer and of service, and to return account to its constituents (political authority, population, partners, etc.), effect and impact of the actions undertaken, good use of the allotted resources; in short to show that the libraries is an institution useful for the company and that public money at summer employed in the most effective possible way. By doing this, the management of the libraries refers to public policies trends and sciences associating with marketing methods.

Methodical principles set up, it is then possible to approach the technical aspects to adapt to the political and strategic needs management for the library. In the realization of the dashboards, the contribution of the geographical information systems, prove particularly adapted. In this respect, the interest of the geographical information systems is double:

· It constitutes a base of data whose information can be compared (subject to harmonization of data), with that of the library;
· It transform complex data in a simple representation and makes possible to make evaluation a natural practice and not an additional workload.

This is why, taking as a starting point the ways opened by Christie Koontz, the library of Fresnes (France) develops, in co-operation with the department of the Valley of the Marne, the connection of its and management information system of library with a geographical information system. This experimentation aims at equipping each member with the personnel of a dashboard enabling him to follow its action on each component of the territory, such as for example:

· Percentage of the population of a given age bracket of each attending the library;
· Distribution by district of the use of the various segments of the collection;
· All combinations of data relating to the users, with the services and the collections, useful for the evaluation of the level of success of a beforehand definite objective.

It is the report of this experimentation, supported on a demonstration which will be presented at Bergen.

Getting Help and Doing Research: What do patrons want?
An exploratory study comparing VR users with Reference Desk users

Diane Granfield
Librarian and Coordinator of Virtual Reference
Ryerson University Library

Mark Robertson
Reference Librarian and Coordinator of Virtual Reference
York University – Scott Library

Are virtual reference users reaching a new type of user? Are they addressing substantially different needs and preferences than traditional reference services? Should virtual reference be a key player in addressing new service pressures as a result of the growth in digital content and the shift to remote usage of library resources? These questions formed the impetus for a comparative study that was conducted to explore the preferences of our users for different modes of reference assistance as well as a number of other related variables like visits to the library, preferences for location when doing research, types of resources they consult and expectations of staff. A survey was administered to reference desk users, virtual reference users and visitors to our web sites. To further explore these issues a series of focus groups both in-person and online were conducted. This session will report on the findings of the study, the methodologies employed and problems encountered, and suggestions for further research.

Library Statistics without Fear

Michael B. Huang, Senior Assistant Librarian
Health Sciences Center Library
Stony Brook University

Ellen Maleszewski, Professor
School of Health Technology and Management
Stony Brook University

Many librarians who don’t have a mathematical or statistical background are often intimidated by a wide spectrum of statistics. A basic understanding of statistics would help librarians answer reference inquiries, write successful proposals for funding of libraries, and to conduct research. This paper will address the following topics: (1) what are basic descriptive statistical methods and how they can be utilized; (2) how to understand “statistically significant” and how to stretch the truth using graphs and charts; and (3) how to understand, interpret, and utilize statistics and a variety of professional research literature to help manage your library.

Comparing libraries. From official statistics to effective strategies

Tord Høvik
Faculty of Journalism, Library and Information Science
Oslo University College

The countries of Europe are turning from industrial to knowledge based societies. In that process the social role of public libraries is changing. Their main services continue as before. Libraries still lend books, answer questions and provide space for a great variety of social and cultural activities. But the interpretation of the services changes.
In industrial societies, culture and education are seconday sectors, somewhat divorced from "real work". Our children were educated before they started working - and adults enjoyed culture as a form of recreation outside working hours. A skilled worker was skilled for the rest of his life.
In knowledge societies, production is based on constant learning and continuous innovation. Technologies and markets change rapidly and need organizations - as well as individuals - that are able to adapt, learn and develop. Culture and leisure are becoming major economic sectors in their own right. Highly educated people try to fill their lives with rich, intense, and meaningful experiences - both at work and in their spare time.

This is a challenge to public libraries. Libraries are funded by the government, national or local. They depend, in the long run, on the willing support of the electorate. Their role in industrial society was well defined and widely accepted. Politicians and voters understood the value of library services and were willing to pay for them. But their role in knowledge societies looks less evident. The traditional arguments have lost much of their force. Politicians often seem less committed: their hearts are not engaged. If voters follow their lead, public libraries will loose their broad political support. In several European countries, we believe, this is starting to happen.

In Norway, we see this most clearly in the way official statistics have become a pruning tool. Before nobody outside the library world showed much interest in library statistics. But now the Central Bureau of Statistics has introduced a sophisticated system for collecting and comparing municipal statistics (KOSTRA). In several municipalities a single statistical indicator - the number of loans per staff year (FTE = full-time equivalents) - have recently been used against libraries that have "too much staff".

In the past, we believe, official library statistics have been less than fully utilized. - Today, library institutions spend too much effort on repetitive data collection and too little on data analysis. Libraries provide many different services to many different users. But official statistics only reflect certain aspects of library use. At the national level, we need a better understanding of the services that libraries provide - or could provide - in knowledge oriented, multicultural and highly complex societies. Within libraries we need better tools for planning and managing services. (Høivik, 2003).

But decision-making based on one indicator - and a problematic indicator at that - is not the answer. In this paper we argue for a broader use of official library statistics in library management and strategic planning. We propose a set of statistical variables that cover the range of services libraries are likely to provide in knowledge based societies. Previous and current work in the field of library statistics will, ofg course, be fully recognized and taken into account. We develop a number of statistical indicators from these variables - mostly in the form of simple ratios. And we show how such indicators can be used for effective strategic planning.
The paper will be empirical as well as methodological. We will illustrate our argument with two small comparative studies using available statistical data. In the first we compare the public library systems in several European countries with data from LibEcon. In the second we compare selected public libraries in Norway with data from KOSTRA and some additional sources.

The paper builds on - and develops - ideas and empirical research presented in:

1. Høivik, Tord (2003). Why do you ask? Reference statistics for library planning, Performance measurement and metrics, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 28-37. Article = first half of web version
2. - (2004). Wide enough for libraries? The library function in a web-based world. Paper for the conference Professional Information on the Internet, Kraków, Poland 31st May - 1st June 2004. Forthcoming in a book from conference.
3. - (2004). Når statistikk blir politikk. Om KOSTRA og norsk bibliotekstatistikk [When statistics turns into politics: on KOSTRA and Norwegian library statistics]. Bok og bibliotek, nr. 3.
4. - Statistikk og styring i norske folkebibliotek [Statistics and management in Norwegian public libraries]. Pre-print forthcoming, 2004.

Measuring and Mapping the invisible :
Alternative procedures to understand users’ approach to Information in a University Library

Gildas Illien
Chief Librarian
Head of the Public services Department
Paris 8 University Library, Saint-Denis, France ;

13 000 sq. meters, 1 500 seats, 86 employees (including 47 qualified librarians), 360 000 books (half of them in open access), over 1 000 periodicals, 100 computers giving access to a broad selection of electronic resources and journals, the University Library of Saint-Denis opens 60 hours and 6 days a week : it offers to its public a first-class equipment and some of the best collections and services a French university library can provide in the fields of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences. The construction of this luxurious building by famous French architect Pierre Riboulet in 1998 represents a major investment and a strong political and social commitment for the French Government and its local partners considering the environment and the population of the Saint-Denis University : 35% of the 27 000 students come from foreign countries (mostly North Africa, South America, Asia and Eastern Europe); and a large part of the student population is usually considered to have fewer chances than others to achieve academic or professional success due to their educational, social and cultural background. Besides, access to the Library is granted to any person aged over 18, which means that a significant part of its visitors are adults and young adults from the suburban neighbourhood, a vast residential lower-class no-man’s land with no public equipment matching the size nor the networking opportunities offered by the University.

The Saint-Denis University Library cannot complain about the usual problems which affect French libraries : no budget or staff cuts, no opening hours “wars”, no space saturation or degradation. 6 years after its spectacular opening, the library is, of course, proud of its success : in 2003, over 60 % of the students registered for the library and borrowed at least one book ; everyday, between 3 500 and 6 000 people come to the library to borrow, browse, copy or print documents and use its various services. Those figures are much higher than the national averages.

However, time has come to question the actual impact of the library on its public and to look for new ways to improve the quality of its services : quantitative analysis and statistics are part of the library management culture and already provide useful data for the monthly and annual reports, but they have shown their limits. In spite of the reassuring figures regarding access, loans or consultation, it is felt by many that the gap between the librarians’ representation of the library functions and its everyday use by the public has been increasingly widening. When taking time to discuss with students, or observing what they do, we came to realise that the library wasn’t this beautiful and modern temple devoted to academic knowledge and mutual understanding. It is of course, like any library, a place of
social or individual appropriation ; but it is also a place of misunderstanding and ignorance, where (too) many people get lost and waste their time looking for something they don’t find. Beside and beyond its usual documentary and management duties, the executive staff of the library has therefore accepted to contribute to the long-term development of the library services by involving itself in the testing of new ways and techniques to observe the public and learn from their own perceptions and practises. The goal : escaping narrow visions of what a library should be, adjusting its services to the local needs while respecting the University’s official missions, and, overall, getting closer to reality.

This paper aims at describing the most recent and promising procedures which have been tested in Saint-Denis to measure qualitative use of the library by its patrons. Through a combination of various survey protocols, we have been trying to understand :

· why the people come to the library, and what they’re looking for;
· where they actually go, which services they use, and what they find in the library;
· how their representation of knowledge and information confronts and challenges the spatial and intellectual organisation of the library space, catalogue and classification system.

This paper also intends to show how such procedures can affect decision-making and, more broadly, library management regarding the following service-oriented issues :

· students’ education in the field of information and documentation,
· ways of organising communications, mediation and assistance with library patrons,
· changes in space organisation, signals and signboards;
· the implementation of a new information system.

In the course of academic year 2004-2005, several experiments are being run in the library :

· measuring the number and types of questions being asked to librarians over periods of one week
· a specific survey about to the use of the library catalogue,
· a collaborative diary written by a team of five “flying librarians” who don’t wait for the public behind a desk but rather follow him through the shelves and the screens to test new forms of mediation;
· a geographical survey of the patrons’ ways through the library : over a period of one week, students from the Geography Dept. will be tracking and reporting the path of a sample of users ; their data should be exploited in a dynamic geographical information system.

Most of these experiments are being run in collaboration with an interdisciplinary team of scholars from the University of Paris 8 whose expertise covers a wide range of disciplines : geography, information technology, psychology, ergonomics. This partnership is, of course, a way to cross-examine qualitative results from different academic perspectives and to open up the usual “librarian vision” of the library to broader approaches. From a political perspective, it is also an opportunity to change the status of the library inside the University from a mere technical service of documentation to a potential field of research worth of interest for the local scientific community.

Depending on the forthcoming results of the various surveys engaged and on possible suggestions from the IFLA evaluation committee, the oral presentation of this paper will focus on one or two specific projects and present both the practical and theoretical aspects of these procedures both from a management and a librarian perspective.

Marketing to Diverse Populations

Kathleen Imhoff
Executive Director
Lexington Public Library

This paper focuses on the methods and strategies used to bring library service to a diverse community of 40% Hispanic, 25-30% African American, and 35-40% Caucasian. It includes a statistical segment demonstrating the phenomenal growth in patron usage over a nine-month period, focusing on reference transactions, computer minutes used, in-house usage, and program attendance.

The new Village Branch of the Lexington Public Library is a 7,000 square foot renovated storefront space. Lexington, Kentucky, known as the Horse Capital of the World, had a fairly homogenous population until the early 1990’s when thousands of people from Central America started to immigrate to Lexington to work on the horse farms. Most of these immigrants had only a 3rd grade education and no English language skills. They were not familiar with the concept of a free, public library and were wary of Government-sponsored agencies.

The challenge for the Lexington Public Library was to provide targeted, cost-effective Library service, and to develop a marketing plan to promote the new branch Library to the diverse neighborhood population.

A PowerPoint presentation will include photos that demonstrate many of the different marketing techniques used. The Village Branch invites and draws people in based on several significant factors: strategic location in a heavily used shopping center in one of the city’s largely Hispanic areas; unusual use of color in the building’s interior design; the use of face-out, low shelving, high-impact furniture and design elements; and the high visibility due not only to its location but also to the clear glass front of the branch.


Helen King
Associate Librarian
La Trobe University, Bendigo

Australian university libraries have a long history and culture of performance measurement, benchmarking, quality improvement and application of best practice initiatives in library and information services.

From a national perspective, the Council of Australian University Librarians (CAUL), which comprises the university librarians/library directors of Australia’s 40 universities, encourages and co-ordinates the development of best practice strategies for enhancing the quality of university library services. To date, these have included:

the provision of statistical information which enables institutional comparison of key indicators;
the development of a range of performance indicator kits;
sponsoring the development of a national library customer survey instrument;
the development of best practice guides in a number of areas

In recent years the systematic approach to evaluation, benchmarking and improvement has become an integral part of the Australian higher education framework as a whole. In 2000 the Australian government, which has overall responsibility for higher education in Australia, introduced a quality audit scheme and established the Australian Universities Quality Agency (AUQA). AUQA will audit each self accrediting higher education institution in Australia every five years. The AUQA audits focus on the goals and objectives of institutions, and investigate the processes universities have in place to achieve these goals and objectives, including the measuring, monitoring and improvement frameworks. The audits also include scrutiny of the institutions’ libraries – how they contribute to institutional objectives and the quality assurance mechanisms in place to achieve this.

This paper provides an overview of the key evaluation and measurement activities currently being developed and utilised by university libraries in Australia, and the higher education context which is catalysing these activities. Particular reference is paid to those measures developed by CAUL, and the national benchmarking initiatives which are being undertaken.

The paper also presents, as a case study, the preparation that one university library – La Trobe University Library – undertook for the AUQA quality audit, which was conducted in September 2004. This included the development of a checklist used to carry out an organizational self review and identify areas for improvement. The checklist also records the “whole of library” performance measurement and evaluation activities which are used by the library to measure and monitor performance at the strategic level.

Using Geographic and Library Use Data for Improved Strategic Planning and Decision-making

Dr. Christie Koontz

GeoLib Program
Florida State University

Awareness of and access to geographic data is complex and new to many professions, including librarianship. Geographic data is best described as information such as the geographic boundaries of the neighborhood the library serves, characteristics of the people who live there (age, language spoken, level of income and education), and how far library users and potential library users live from the library. Library research indicates all these factors which are geographic in nature, affect library use.
Public agencies such as school, police and fire departments access geographic data with the support of local government through local planning offices or in-house expertise. Local funders consider these agencies critical to all citizens, and support comes readily. By contrast, sometimes the perception of the public library as a customer-selected agency rather than one that addresses the needs of all citizens often casts the library in a not-so-critical role. Yet the public library’s mission remains centered on equitable information provision to all people in a community, and has continued for the past century to be an exemplary public provider.

With lack of local support and without training in the use of geographic data, librarians are often forced to be less than equal players on community planning teams. This deficiency can limit the library’s success in competing with other public agencies for funds in the face of reductions of school capacities or fire and police protection, particularly when libraries face cutbacks, staff reduction or closure.

This paper introduces: 1) geographic data relevant to strategic decision making in public libraries (although other types of libraries may also benefit); and 2) new technologies that facilitate use of geographic data such as GIS (geographic information system software) and the US Public Library Geographic Database,

To Go Global or To Remain Local: Analyzing the types of virtual reference queries posted to a collaborative 24/7 service and their answer qualities

Nahyun Kwon
Institutional Affiliation
University of South Florida, School of Library & Information Science

Problem Investigated
A frequently expressed concern about virtual reference collaborations is how effective it would be for the staff at one library to answer questions for another, if many queries tend to be “local.” Similarly, by not getting instant answers, library patrons whose queries are referred back to their local library would easily be confused and frustrated. Unless they understand the boundaries between library systems in a collaborative virtual service, the patrons would be left with a question, “what am I supposed to ask to this service?” These problems question cost-effective deployment of resources of a local library and effective customer services.
If a local library observed that a high proportion of virtual reference queries can be answered only by its locally restricted resources and services, the library should reconsider its joining in a nationwide consortium. Conversely, if the high proportion of queries relates to factual and subject searches and if those queries are answered effectively by the staff of participating libraries, the library would support inter-institutional collaborations. Unfortunately, the current literature does not adequately inform what types of queries are generally asked by the patrons of public libraries that are participating in consortia. Furthermore, while the previous literature generally reports high patron satisfaction to the answers they received, few have reported the types of queries that can be most effectively answered in the collaborated virtual reference service. Filling in these knowledge gaps will bring direct benefits to public libraries that wish to make informed decisions on inter-institutional collaborations for their virtual reference services and subsequent staffing and training issues. Thus, the present study investigates the typology of queries posed by public library patrons to a collaborative virtual reference service and reference effectiveness of those queries.

The proposed study employs both content analysis of the transcripts of virtual reference transactions and a self-administered user survey that is submitted immediately after each transaction. Both data are obtained from an electronic archive of a U.S. public library system that has participated in a nationwide collaborative service. The study analyzes 422 reference transactions that have occurred between January and June, 2004.
The two major research variables of the current study are types of queries and reference success. First, “types of queries” is measured via content analysis of reference transaction transcripts. Second, “reference success” is assessed in terms of answer completeness and user perception of reference success. Answer completeness is measured via content analysis of transcripts. User perception of reference success is measured by a composite variable based on patrons’ responses to four survey questionnaire items: (1) satisfaction with the answer obtained; (2) user perception of the staff quality; (3) willingness to return to the service, and (4) positiveness of service experience. A series of descriptive and inferential statistical tests are to be conducted to identify compositions of different query types and the association between query types and reference success.

Implications of the Study
The findings of the present study will contribute to the reference practice and research by providing managerial and methodological implications. From the managerial perspective, by informing the typology of reference queries and the reference success of each query type, this study will assist a local library’s decision making on whether the library should join the global consortium or maintain the service at a local level. From the methodological perspective, by demonstrating a method to utilize automatically collected virtual reference transaction transcripts and survey data, the current study can serve as an example of data collection and analysis that could be easily adopted by local librarians who want to diagnose and correct problems with their systems and services.


Ignacio Latorre Zacarés
Jefe de Sección de Bibliotecas de la Dirección General del Libro y Bibliotecas de la Generalitat Valenciana (Comunidad Valenciana – España)
Conselleria de Cultura, Educación y Deporte.
Dirección General del Libro y Bibliotecas.
Servicio del Libro

Milagros Ortells Montón
Técnica de Bibliotecas de la Dirección General del Libro y Bibliotecas de la Generalitat Valenciana (Comunidad Valenciana – España).
Dirección General del Libro y Bibliotecas.
Servicio del Libro

Desde el año 2000, el organismo coordinador de política bibliotecaria en la Comunidad Valenciana (España) inició un proceso de mejora del sistema estadístico del Sistema Bibliotecario Valenciano que ha permitido poseer un mejor conocimiento del estado actual de la red bibliotecaria regional y que actúa como herramienta para la toma de decisiones de política bibliotecaria. La propuesta de comunicación analiza los progresos realizados en la gestión estadística y sus aplicaciones prácticas en política bibliotecaria y en investigación sobre bibliotecas públicas.

Fases de desarrollo del sistema estadístico:

- Creación de una potente base de datos (XABIB) que centraliza todos los parámetros estadísticos del Sistema Bibliotecario Valenciano.
- Actualización y verificación de todo el directorio de bibliotecas valencianas.
- Actualización de los cuestionarios estadísticos de la serie histórica de estadísticas mensuales de uso de la biblioteca.
- Creación de un nuevo cuestionario estadístico anual que permite controlar todos los parámetros más importantes a nivel bibliotecario: instalaciones, servicios, personal, gastos, horarios, nivel de automatización, colección, visitantes, préstamos, etc.
- Integración de información en el sistema español estadístico de bibliotecas públicas.
- Mejora del sistema de envío de estadísticas: creación de una aplicación para el envío e introducción de estadísticas mensuales por Internet desde las bibliotecas públicas y envío por correo electrónico de estadísticas anuales.
- Creación de un programa especial de extracción de información estadística de uso interno y una aplicación web que permite la consulta abierta, versátil y en línea de los datos principales del Sistema Bibliotecario Valenciano.
- Proceso de filtro, verificación y mejora de consistencia de los datos.
- Creación de una herramienta web que permite la consulta en línea de una amplia gama de datos estadísticos con la posibilidad de realizar consultas históricas, geográficamente delimitadas y con información gráfica.
- Elaboración de informes dirigidos a los cargos políticos para facilitar el proceso de toma de decisiones.
- Elaboración de artículos y comunicaciones sobre el Sistema Bibliotecario Valenciano a partir de la información estadística.
- Aplicación práctica de políticas bibliotecarias a partir de los resultados estadísticos.



Since 2000, the coordinating agency of library policies in the Valencian Community (Spain) started a process of improvement in the statistical system of the Valencian Library System that has allowed a better knowledge of the present condition of the regional library net and that acts as a tool for the taking of decisions in library policies. The paper analyses the improvements brought about in the statistical management and its practical applications in library policies and in research on public libraries.

Stages in the development of the statistical system:

- Creation of a powerful database (XABIB) that centralizes all the statistical parameters of the Valencian Library System.
- Updating and revision of the whole directory of Valencian libraries.
- Updating of the statistical questionaries of the historical series of library monthly use statistics.
- Elaboration of a new yearly statistical questionary that allows to control all the most important parameters in the library field: facilities, services, staff, expenses, timetable, automatization level, collection, visitors, library loans, etc…
- Integration of information in the Spanish statistical system of public libraries.
- Improvement in the statistics dispatch: creation of a computer application to send and introduce in the Internet monthly statistics from the public libraries as well as to dispatch yearly statistics via e-mail.
- Creation of a specific computer program to obtain statistical information of internal use and a web application that allows an on-line access to the Valencian Library System main data.
- Filtering, verification and improvement in the data consistency.
- Creation of a web tool that permits an on-line search of a wide range of statistical data with the possibility of carrying out historical searches, geographically delimited and with graphic information.
- Elaboration of reports addressed to the politically-appointed officials in order to facilitate their taking of decisions.
- Elaboration of articles and papers on the Valencian Library System taking as reference statistical data.
Practical applications in library policies of statistics dates.

La bibliothèque municipale face aux fluctuations financières : l’impensé managérial dans les bibliothèques françaises des villes moyennes

Latifa Liman
Docteur en Sciences de l'information et de la Communication
Université Lumière Lyon 2
Membre associé au laboratoire de recherche Documents et Science de l’Information (DOCSI)
Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Sciences de l'Information
et des Bibliothèques

Le secteur culturel est connu pour sa fragilité économique. Ainsi les bibliothèques, souvent les premières sacrifiées au nom de la contrainte budgétaire, rencontrent régulièrement des problèmes financiers avec lesquels elles doivent composer. Elles sont alors amenées à introduire des changements, à adopter de nouvelles approches et méthodes de gestion.
Nombreux sont les choix et les modes de gestion alternatifs qui se présentent aux décideurs. Ils peuvent opérer un repli et tenter de faire face aux changements budgétaires par des remaniements internes. Ils peuvent décider de tarifer les services pour assurer des rentrées financières. Ils peuvent aussi préférer se tourner vers l’extérieur : pour rechercher des aides, de nature financière ou autre; pour mettre en commun certains services et ressources avec d’autres organisations et donc pour coopérer ; ou encore pour confier en sous-traitance certaines tâches à une entité indépendante publique ou privée.
Notre enquête sur les bibliothèques françaises des villes moyennes montre que l’ensemble de ces choix gestionnaires est mis en œuvre. Les raisons sont multiples et varient d’une bibliothèque à une autre. Mais les décisions reposent rarement sur un raisonnement gestionnaire. Les outils et les démarches de management restent encore des concepts ambigus pour les professionnels. Pour nombre d’entre eux, il subsiste une inadéquation entre la culture et l’économie. Dès lors la façon de gérer leur établissement relève plus de l’intuition, du parti-pris, que d’une véritable rationalisation économique.
Sur la base de ce constat, ce travail se conclut sur la proposition de construction d’un outil d’aide à la décision qui permettrait aux décideurs de juger de l’opportunité réelle des choix qui s’offrent à eux dans le domaine de la gestion des bibliothèques.

The cultural sector is known for its economic fragility. Thus, being the first sacrificed because of the budgetary constraint, the libraries are regularly face financial problems with which they must adapt. Libraries have therefore to introduce changes, to adopt new approaches and methods of management.
Decision makers have many alternative choices and methods of management. They can either drawback and try to face the budgetary changes by internal rehandlings or they can decide to tariff the services to ensure of the financial re-entries. They can also prefer to seek financial and other kinds of assistance from outside ; to share certain services and resources with other organisations and thus to cooperate ; or to entrust in subcontracting certain tasks to a public or private independent entity.
Our investigation into the French libraries of the average cities ( of 20 000 to 100 000 inhabitants ) shows that all of these administrative choices are implemented. The reasons are multiple and vary from one library to another. But the decisions seldom depend on managerial reasoning. Managerial tools and actions still remain ambiguous concepts for the professionals. For a number of them, there remains an inadequacy between culture and economy. Consequently, the way of managing their establishment relies more on intuition, bias, than on a true economic rationalisation.
On the basis of this report, this work concludes on the proposal of the construction of a decision-making aid tool which would allow the decision makers to consider the real opportunity of the choices they have in the field of library management.

Customer Value Research

Sue McKnight
Director of Libraries and Knowledge Resources
Information Co-ordinator, IFLA Universities and Research Libraries Section and Convenor, IFLA Quality Issues in Libraries Discussion Group
Nottingham Trent University
Libraries & Knowledge Resources
The Boots Library

This research, based on focus groups with key customer segments, seeks to identify:
what aspects of the library service cause irritation;
what services are most valued by the customer segment - the value propositions;
and a rating of current performance against those value propositions
It is much more useful than 'Customer Satisfaction' methodologies for evaluating performance. I would describe the methodology that is used, which is provided by Enzyme International, a facilitation company/consultants. The process is very effective for a number of reasons:
the customers are not asked to comment on a given list of services; they create their own hierarchy of value (and irritation) so it is valid from the customer perspective
information is gained on the priority or importance of the value propositions, so as to aid decision making - reduce the irritations and maximise value
a gap analysis is gained on relative importance and current performance
library staff are observers in the focus group sessions and are involved in anticipating how they believe the customers are going to rank the value propositions - so a gap analysis is generated on perceptions between library staff and the customers
task groups from across the library then work with the data from the consolidated focus groups to work out what needs to be done to improve value and reduce irritation, so it is an effective 'cultural change' mechanism.
As I have undertaken similar customer value research in an academic library in Australia, I will be able to compare the hierarchy of values (and irritants) between the UK and the Australian university experiences.

Measuring the performance of the University of Porto Libraries: an action model

Luiza Baptista Melo
Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto
Departamento de Matemática,
Aplicada Biblioteca


This paper will describe an action model to measure the performance of the 25 libraries of the University of Porto.
The proposal model is a mix example that is based in the CAF – Common Assessment Framework (European Union 2003), Balanced Scorecard (KAPLAN, NORTON 1992) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (SAATY 1990). The recommend performance indicators are
based in the ISO 11620:1998:2003 and ISO 2789:2003.
The CAF – Common Assessment Framework is a model based in the EFQM Excellence Model. CAF represents nine fundamental concepts to assess an organization’s progress
towards excellence. The nine concepts are the following: leadership, people, strategy and planning, human resources management, partnerships and resources, processes and change
management, people results, customer results, society results and key performance results.
The Balanced Scorecard is a management technique designed to provide a view of an organization from four perspectives: user, internal processes, financial and innovation and
learning. The relative weights for each performance measure are calculated by use of Analytic Hierarchy Process, AHP. The AHP can compute the weights of performance measures on the basis of two steps:
1) Comparing (pairwise) the major perspectives of the proposal model;
2) Comparing (pairwise) the subperformance measures under each major measure.
The main purpose of this model is to improve the performance in each academic library and to develop benchmarking techniques.

EUROPEAN UNION. European Institute of Public Administration – CAF-Common Assessment Framework [on-line]. Maasthricht: EIPA. [Consult. 28 Fev. 2004]. URL
KAPLAN, R. S.; NORTON, D. P. – The balanced scorecard – measures that drive performance”. Harvard Business Review, January February 1992, pp. 71-79.
SAATY, Thomas L. – Decision making for leaders: the analytic hierarchy process for decisions in a complex world. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 1990.

Comparaison entre un audit de culture, un audit marketing et un audit de structure, dans le cadre d’une médiathèque

Marielle de Miribel

Différents outils d’analyse, empruntés au monde privé, permettent d’appréhender la complexité des bibliothèques et de comprendre quels en sont les enjeux stratégiques. Je me propose de présenter brièvement ces trois outils de diagnostic, de montrer quel en est leur intérêt et en quoi ils se complètent mutuellement.

1. L’audit marketing (SWOT)
C’est un état des lieux subjectif, à l’instant T. Il étudie de façon dynamique :
D’une part les enjeux externes à la structure (opportunités/ menaces) : c’est une carte de l’environnement, observé du point de vue de la structure considérée.
Et d’autre part, les ressources internes (forces / faiblesses) également du point de vue de la structure considérée, à l’instant T.
Ces deux constats permettent de dresser les écarts éventuels entre les objectifs espérés et réalistes.

2. L’audit de culture
Dans un autre registre, celui du patrimoine, l’audit de culture est un inventaire des 5 points clé qui permettent à une structure de définir les bases de son capital d’image. (les fondateurs, l’histoire, le métier, les valeurs et les signes et symboles). Il permet de nommer, faire exister, consolider et fructifier le capital d’image qui sous-tend toutes les actions de communication externe et interne à al structure.

3. L’audit de structure
Il étudie la complexité de l’organisation considérée, à partir de l’environnement, pour en déterminer les objectifs stratégiques, condition de survie de la structure. De là, tel un fil rouge, il balaie les différentes zones d’exploration (autorité du groupe avec leadership et canon, membres du groupe et activité du groupe) pour permettre de se poser 12 questions concernant les points clés déterminant la bonne santé générale de la structure.

Après cette présentation théorique, on pourrait prévoir un atelier en 3 groupes, où les participants dresseraient le profil d’une bibliothèque témoin, état des lieux suivi d’une mise en commun et de commentaires en terme d’enjeux stratégiques.

Developing a culture of evidence based practice within the library and information profession: the impact of library science education.
A teaching and learning model from the Queensland University of Technology

Helen Partridge
Faculty of Information Technology
Queensland University of Technology
Brisbane, QLD, Australia

Gillian Hallam
Senior Lecturer
Faculty of Information Technology
Queensland University of Technology
Brisbane, QLD, Australia

Evidence Based Practice (EBP) has recently emerged as a topic of discussion amongst professionals within the library and information industry. Simply stated, EBP is the process of using formal research skills and methods to assist in decision making and establishing best practice. The emerging interest in the EBP within the library context serves to remind the library profession that sound research skills and methods are essential if the library industry is to remain current and relevant in a rapidly changing environment. The future of EBP within the library context relies upon effective cooperation between industry professionals, library science educators and professional associations. This paper will consider the role of library science education in ensuring the future of EBP within librarianship. Aware of its role to industry as a supplier of employees to the marketplace, the Queensland University of Technology (QUT) is continually reviewing its library science curriculum to more readily embrace the needs of current industry practice. This paper will discuss the teaching and learning model that is being at the Queensland University of Technology to foster student awareness and understanding of EBP and its practical role in the library and information industry.

In 2005 QUT will introduce for the first time a Master of Information Management (MIM). Based upon the Graduate Diploma in Library and Information Studies previously offered, enrolled students will be required to complete ten core unit and two electives. Guided by the growing industry demand EBP will be a vital part of the MIM curriculum. Over the one and a half year course students will be introduced via the core units to the fundamentals of research in practice through industry speakers, problem based activities, case studies, group discussion and self reflection. The core unit ITN276 introduces students to the broad area of information services and is used as the primary vehicle in the MIM through which students can develop their understanding and experience in using research methods. Students are required to develop their understanding of current industry practice by undertaking a critical evaluation of an existing information service. By becoming directly involved in performance measurement through the collection and analysis of user-derived data, the students gain insights into the value of research techniques and strategies in different library contexts. The success of the learning in the unit depends on the collaborative involvement of industry professionals in the academic program, enabling the effective transfer of learning between students, academics and practitioners.

The paper examines the experiences of both the teaching staff and the students in practicing EBP within an industry context and considers the contribution the course makes in developing an EBP culture within the Australian library and information profession.

A new model for public library and information services evaluation: an integrated approach - SIADAP+B

Leonor Gaspar Pinto
Member of the Executive Board
INCITE, the Portuguese Association for Information Management

Paula Ochôa
Member of the Executive Board
INCITE, the Portuguese Association for Information Management

The aim of this paper is to present the model developed specifically for the evaluation of Portuguese public library and information services as a result of a research project carried out by INCITE, The Portuguese Association for Information Management (2004). The model is based on four action-oriented pillars:

· Common Assessment Framework (CAF) – the self-evaluation framework recommended for European Public Administration Services;
· Balanced Scorecard – Kaplan and Norton’s strategical tool for organizational management and performance improvement;
· Library standards on performance measures and indicators (ISO 2789, ISO 11620 and ISO/TR 20983);
· The Portuguese system for evaluating Public Administration organizational and individual performance – Sistema Integrado de Avaliação de Desempenho da Administração Pública – SIADAP.

The balanced integration of all these components focused on a library perspective is an innovative tool, which can push librarians towards a new social impact, since it is the first professional group to have a self-evaluation performance tailored-made tool.
The model is described and the integration links are mapped in detail.
The dissemination of SIADAP+B among the library and information community, together with a (inter)national growing tendency towards quality assessment led to several marketing initiatives within libraries. These initiatives and projects carried out by INCITE or, individually, by INCITE members are analysed:

Finally, after reflecting on the difficulties of changing the traditional performance evaluation behaviour of librarians, the advantages of using an integrated model for performance evaluation are emphasized, especially in terms of INCITE’s marketing policy.


Claude Poissenot
IUT Nancy-Charlemagne, Université Nancy2

How can we understand that people frequent public libraries or not ? I have tried to show for many years that the frequentation of libraries depends not only on external factors like reading practices, watching television, etc. On the contrary, I believe that it depends on internal factors : the way the libraries offer their services to users partly determines the number and the type of users who come there. But how can we know what the determining factors are ? A first solution consists in doing a study of the frequentation of a library before and after a service change. That’s a good method because the observation of users is done in the same context (neighborhood, staff, etc.). On the other hand, the results come from specific cases and we can’t be sure that they are valuable in all the cases.
Faced with such limits, a second solution is possible. We can observe a large number of libraries and compare them according to different criteria. In France, the Direction du livre et de la lecture du Ministère de la culture (the section of the ministry of Culture that deals with libraries) gathers data from each public library every year. So we have at our disposal information about budget, staff, collections, premises, users and loans. Until now, these data have been analyzed in a simple way : for example we know what the average collection of CDs in the libraries is. Using the same data, I would like to cross the information about the libraries with information about the users. More precisely, does the rate between the number of users with a library card and the number of inhabitants of the city depend on the library’s characteristics ? For example : is the rate higher in the libraries with large opening hours ? Do the libraries with a large part of professional staff receive more users than libraries with fewer professionals ?
My paper tries to answer such questions. I would like to find some results in order to help library managers define better practices. Moreover, it would be interesting to compare results from France with results from other countries.


Comment comprendre la fréquentation (ou non fréquentation) des bibliothèques ? Depuis plusieurs années , nous défendons l’idée selon laquelle ce ne sont pas seulement des éléments extérieurs à la bibliothèque (le rapport à la lecture, l’air du temps, la télévision, etc.) qui se révèlent déterminants. Nous soutenons au contraire l’idée de « déterminants internes » : la manière dont les bibliothèques mettent en forme leurs services décide partiellement de la fréquentation dont elles font l’objet. Mais comment parvenir à identifier les éléments agissant de l’offre ? Une première façon consiste à procéder de façon monographique en comparant la fréquentation d’une même bibliothèque avant et après une modification de ses services. Cette méthode offre l’avantage de maintenir stables nombre d’éléments de la situation (population desservie, personnel, etc.).En revanche, comme il s’agit de cas singuliers, on ne peut pas être sûr de la validité générale des résultats auxquels on parvient.
C’est face à ses limites que nous avons développé une deuxième méthode. Il s’agit d’exploiter les données recueillies sur presque toutes les bibliothèques publiques de France (n = 2700 à 3000). La Direction du livre et de la lecture du Ministère de la culture recueille tous les ans des informations auprès de chaque bibliothèque sur le budget, le personnel, les collections, les acquisitions, les locaux, le public et les prêts. Jusqu’à présent, ces données sont exploitées de façon simple : nous disposons des moyennes et de la distribution des réponses selon la taille de la commune dans laquelle est implantée la bibliothèque. En exploitant les mêmes données, nous croisons statistiquement les informations sur la bibliothèque avec celles sur la fréquentation. Les bibliothèques disposant du budget d’acquisitions par habitant le plus élevé sont-elles les plus fréquentées ? Les bibliothèques ayant un personnel spécifique attirent-elles davantage de public ?
Pour répondre à ces questions, il faut définir un indicateur stable de fréquentation. Dans cet objectif, nous prenons comme indicateur le rapport entre le nombre d’inscrits de la commune et le nombre d’habitants de la commune. De cette façon, on mesure bien l’attractivité de la bibliothèque sur la population qu’elle dessert. Notre communication sera consacrée à la présentation de notre démarche et à la présentation de quelques résultats.

Libraries Building Communities: the vital contribution of Victoria’s public libraries – A report on a major research project of the Library Board of Victoria and the Victorian public library network

Debra Rosenfeldt,
Bachelor of Arts (Hons)
Graduate Diploma of Librarianship,
Graduate Diploma of Business in the Field of Managament,
Employing organization: State Library of Victoria

Libraries Building Communities is a research project that evaluates the contribution of public libraries to community strengthening in the Australian State of Victoria and provides recommendations that will help drive the strategic direction of the State’s public library services for the next several years. Victoria has a population of approximately 5 million people. It has 43 public library services and a network of 238 branch libraries and 30 mobile libraries.

Although developed with an awareness of other research that has been conducted in this area globally, the Libraries Building Communities project is groundbreaking in its scale and complexity.

The proposed Paper will present an overview of Libraries Building Communities. It will cover the background and aims of the project, methodology, key findings and recommendations, and lessons learnt during the three-year process of carrying out the project, from the original research proposal in April 2002 to publication of the research reports in March 2005.

The Paper will clearly contribute to the Satellite Meeting’s discussion around research methods, data collection and analysis, performance measurement and best practice in relation to public library services.

The following is a more detailed synopsis of the Libraries Building Communities project:

The major challenge for public libraries and advocates of better libraries for all … is just how to convey to decision makers the breadth, depth and potential impact on the whole community of the modern public library. It is a rare challenge because no other agency in society has the breadth of role, the user range and diversity, and the potential impact. (Alan Bundy, 2003)

The Libraries Building Communities research is an essential resource for all those who advocate to decision makers for the support of better public library services. Libraries Building Communities is a landmark project. It is a comprehensive study of the contributions that public libraries in the State of Victoria make to their communities. It includes all 43 Victorian public library services, and draws on the views and ideas of nearly 10,000 people through a process of rigorous research by an independent company.

The aims of the Libraries Building Communities research are: to increase community awareness of the range of public library services, particularly for ‘disadvantaged’ groups such as ethnic minorities, and those living in remote areas; and show government at all levels how public libraries can help achieve their policy goals. For public library staff the project:
presents clear new data on the contribution libraries make to their communities;
provides case studies that show how Victorian public libraries lead in innovation;
identifies groups that are not currently well served by their libraries, and offer solutions;
builds awareness of the critical social capital and community building role of public libraries.

Information was gathered from: 8,600 online surveys; 400 telephone interviews with library users and non-users; 35 in depth face-to-face interviews with key influencers in the community; and 24 focus groups with library users, non-users and staff. Never before in Australia has research of this scale and complexity been undertaken into the community building role of public libraries.

The Libraries Building Communities findings are presented in a series of reports:

Report 1 – Setting the Scene: This report introduces the key concepts around community building and social capital and gives a summary of the Victorian government’s policy agenda on community. It describes the ways in which public libraries contribute to community building and presents an overview of the public library network in Victoria. There is a review of similar national and international studies measuring the value of public libraries, and a detailed description of the objectives and methodology of the project.

Report 2 – Logging the Benefits: Drawing on the information gathered from the telephone survey, focus groups and face-to-face interviews this report presents community views on how public libraries add value to the community; where greater value could be added; and, what they see as the future of public libraries. It illustrates the many ways in which public libraries assist government at all levels in achieving their goals in many areas including education, lifelong learning, health, e-government and community strengthening.

Report 3 – Bridging the Gaps: Data from the online survey and the Australian Bureau of Statistics is used to present in this report an assessment of segments of the population that use public libraries and those that appear to be less well-serviced, with particular reference to disabled people, ethnic minorities, those on low incomes and those living in remote areas. The report identifies the factors that act as barriers to use and suggests strategies for enhancing engagement.

Report 4 – Showcasing the Best: Over thirty examples of innovative programs and services in Victorian public libraries are presented in this report to illustrate the many ways in which public libraries help to strengthen their communities. Each case study includes the key lessons, challenges and benefits of the initiative. Emphasis is given to partnership initiatives ranging from homework clubs and telecentres to housebound services and vocational guidance programs.

Executive Summary: A succinct bringing together of the key findings from all of the reports that can be used as a stand alone document for distribution to a wide range of stakeholders including politicians and their advisors, local government managers, state and federal government bureaucrats, potential sponsors and partners, other community agencies and media.

Les statistiques en bibliothèques publiques en Tunisie : quelles méthodes de collecte ? quels usages ?

Jalel Rouissi
Enseignant universiatire en bibliothéconomie (management des bibliothèques) à l'Institut supérieur de documentation de Tunis
Ancien bibliothécaire à la direction de la lecture publique en Tunisie

Les bibliothèques publiques en Tunisie sont structurées au sein d'un réseau national fortement centralisé à la tête duquel on trouve une administration centrale nommée "Direction de la lecture publique" qui relève du ministère de la culture. Cette direction centralise toutes les opérations techniques et professionnelles (acquisition, traitement, informatisation, animation, statistiques, etc.) Quant aux opérations financières et administratives (exécution du budget, maintenance, recrutement, recyclage, promotion, etc.) elles relèvent des compétences de la direction des affaires administratives et financières au ministère de la culture. Ce système trop centralisé ne laisse aucune marge de manoeuvre à la direction de la lecture publique en matière administrative et financière qui ne laisse à son tour qu'une infime marge de manoeuvre aux bibliothèques qu'elle supervise en matière technique (acquisition, animation, etc.) Les pratiques en matière des statis tiques s'en trouvent affectées. Elles souffrent à leur tour d'un immobilisme vieux de trente ans.
Les données collectées (les indicateurs) ainsi que leurs modes de collecte (imprimés codés et complexes remplis par les usagers) posent d'énormes difficultés aux professionnels pour trouver une matière exploitable et fiable.
De l'autre côté, l'usage fait de ces statistiques est un usage purement bureaucratique et orienté vers des finalités de légitimation des politiques et des mesures entreprises (rapport d'activité annuel avec des chiffres très douteux sur le nombre de lecteurs, d'emprunts, etc.) Il n'y a pas d'analyse en profondeur des chifrres, de croisement d'indicateurs. Les données ne sont pas exploitées pour des fins de pilotage et d'évaluation.
Notre communication présentera des modèles d'imprimés utilisés dans la collecte des données au sein des bibliothèques publiques tunisiennes. Nous soumettrons ces imprimés à une analyse critique sur leurs objectifs, formes et utilités. Ensuite, nous proposerons des mesures pour simplifier ces formulaires et les réformer au niveau du contenu et de la finalité (quels aspects devrait-on mesurer de l'activité des bibliothèques publiques en Tunisie, comment et pour quels objectifs ?)
Nos propositions s'inspireront de deux points essentiels, à savoir l'analyse de l'existant d'un côté et une démarche comparative avec les recommandations des instances et des normes professionnelles et les pratiques dans certains pays voisins de l'autre côté.

Defining market orientation for the library sector

Barbara Anne Sen
Senior Lecturer
Liverpool John Moores University
School of Business Information, Faculty of Business & Law

This paper is the result of exploratory research forming part of an ongoing study into the value and relevance of market orientation as a strategic option for library managers.

The aim of the study is to define the concept of market orientation relative to the library sector. Understanding the core constructs of market orientation is the preliminary stage in determining the suitability of market orientation in the library sector, prior to the development of a suitable scale to measure market orientation within libraries.

The first objective was to determine a working definition of market orientation from within the extensive body of the management literature and, secondly, to consider if that definition is shared and understood by library professionals.
The methodology used a grounded theory approach, a series of focus groups and field interviews were carried out in order to validate the established constructs of market orientation that are prevalent in the management literature. The purpose of the field research was to highlight insights into market orientation in the library sector that might not emerge given the lack of research on this topic in the sector.

Focus groups were used to gather data from librarians working at different levels in two different sectors, health and arts. Interviews were carried out with library service managers in two other sectors, academic and public. The object was to gain an indication of the breadth of opinion across sectors. Other sectors may need to be consulted in further research.

A taxonomic map was developed to analyse the feedback from the focus groups (Robson, 2002). Categories used are concomitant with both Kohli and Jawaorski and Narver and Slater’s definitions of market orientation which are both widely used in the management literature (Kohli and Jaworski 1990; Narver & Slater, 1990). An expert panel of marketing & strategy academic and practitioners was used to categorise the data.

To support and expand on the findings from the focus groups a total of four interviews were carried out from library managers in the academic and public sectors. These interviews gave
a further insight into the understanding library service managers have of market orientation and the value and importance that they place on market orientation in service performance.
In addition, interviews took place with representatives from library policy makers at the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals, the British Library and the Museums, Libraries and Archives Council. The results of this data show the role of policy makers in supporting strategic development and market orientation within the library sector.
The interview data was analysed using the same three component criteria as the focus groups and the taxonomic map developed as a result of that work.

A number of insights emerge from the study worthy of discussion and future research relating to strategic management options, development of the sector, performance, competition, leadership and management skills. There are some differences in findings from a recent Australian study which may suggest cultural variations (Harrison and Shaw, 2004).

Harrison, Paul James and Robin N, Shaw (2004) Intra-organisational marketing culture and market orientation: A case study of the implementation of the marketing concept in a public library. Library Management. 25 8/9 391-198

Kohli, Ajay K, and Bernard J. Jaworski. (1990) Market orientation: The construct, research propositions, and managerial implications. Journal of Marketing, 54, 1-18.
Narver, John C. and Stanley F. Slater. (1990). The effect of market orientation on business profitability. Journal of Marketing, 54, 20-35
Robson, Colin, (2002) Real world research. 2nd Ed. Blackwell.

Is there any connection between marketing attitudes and behavior? A study in Finnish libraries

Rajesh Singh
Department of Information Studies
Åbo Akademi University

Though the marketing concept is a cornerstone of the marketing discipline, yet we are all aware that it does not always dominate the libraries’ organizational thinking. As a consequence of this, the library literature reflects remarkably little effort to develop a framework for understanding the implementation of the marketing concept. This paper attempts to find if there is any connection between the marketing attitudes and behavior of librarians. The key issues which have been tackled are those relating to the individual psychology, attitudes (need for marketing, convenience to the consumers, physical environment, communication, quality of library services, customer appreciation, developing relationship, and implications of marketing, etc.) and behavior (customer philosophy, inter-functional coordination, strategic orientation, responsiveness, competition orientation and pricing orientation) of the library directors on the usefulness, utility and relevance of employing marketing concept in the library environment. Research data has been collected with the help of half structured interviews in thirty three different libraries of Finland. The libraries are divided into three categories based on their level of market-oriented behavior: strong, medium and weak which are compared further with their attitudes towards different aspects of marketing. The implications of the findings are discussed which indicate a positive relation between the marketing attitudes and behavior.

Developing Marketing Strategies for the Business & Economics Library at the University of Illinois at Urbana – Champaign

Yoo-Seong Song
LIR Librarian &
Assistant Professor of Library Administration
101 Main Library

Rebecca Smith
Head, Business & Economics Library &
Associate Professor of Library Administration
101 Main Library

The University Library at the University of Illinois at Urbana – Champaign is the largest public university library and the third largest academic library in North America. The Business & Economics Library (BEL), one of over 40 departmental libraries of the University Library, has sought to reshape its image from a “house of books” to an electronic business information services center. The authors conducted extensive research to study user experience and expectations of library use, and they analyzed the data to formulate appropriate marketing strategies. Based on the results of the survey, the authors developed marketing strategies using 4 P’s of marketing mix and SWOT analysis. The authors also identified and built strong relationships with marketing partners and advocates of the library who could influence user behavior significantly. The authors used multiple data to evaluate the success of their marketing campaign, such as the number and type of reference questions, demands for library instruction sessions, requests for individual consultation, and collaboration with teaching faculty to integrate library services into courses.

Using Data-Driven Models of Client Needs and Values to Market Library Products and Services

Guillaume Van Moorsel, MLIS, AHIP
Assistant Director, Health Sciences Center Library
Clinical Assistant Professor, Health Policy & Management
Stony Brook University

Libraries often do not know how clients value their product/service offerings. Yet at a time when the mounting costs for library support are increasingly difficult to justify to the parent institution, the library’s ability to gauge the value of its offerings to clients has never been more critical. Client Value Models (CVMs), data-driven representations of the worth of a supplied product/service from a client’s perspective, establish a common definition of value elements – or a “value vocabulary” – for libraries and their clients. CVMs can thereby guide product/service acquisition and development by enabling rational, evidence-based library planning. While derived from business and industry, CVM applications are well suited to libraries and fit comfortably with professional library paradigms. These simple, powerful marketing instruments allow libraries to understand, anticipate, and address the information needs most valued by their clients. Through a theoretical consideration and practical illustrations, this paper offers a framework for libraries to respond more effectively to the shifting information needs of constituents through the development of CVMs.

Lost In Cyberspace? Try Your Library Space at www : Marketing Libraries Through Non-Academic Partnerships

Farideh Tehrani
Head, Access and Collection Services

Myoung C. Wilson
Chair, Information Services Group
New Brunswick Libraries
C/o Alexander Library
Rutgers University

Category: Best practice development and research

The concept of “marketing” or “public relations” is still an underdeveloped (indeed, perhaps unrecognized) area in academic librarianship. In order to introduce library resources and to teach library research skills, academic librarians have been increasingly successful in building partnerships with academic units and course instructors. Building partnerships with non-academic units has not, however, been frequently explored. .

This paper examines library collaborations with campus partners who are not directly involved in student academic activities yet who have an enormous impact on the quality of student life and on factors that influence academic success.

The paper will explore the concept of physical and virtual library outposts, of using campus physical spaces, such as campus centers and campus buses (which are not normally considered to be part of student intellectual life) to inform students about library resources. How these concepts were applied in developing campus outreach programs is a central focus.

The paper will analyze responses from users and campus partners, identify problem areas in working with non-academic units and will suggest areas for future exploration and research areas.

The strategic dimensions of performance measurement

Ulla Wimmer
Kompetenznetzwerk für Bibliotheken beim Deutschen Bibliotheksverband e.V

The paper looks at performance measurement (PM) and statistics from a rather sociological point of view. The tools used are taken from systems theory, history of science and cultural studies. Four theses are at the centre of the work. They are just plainly stated here and will be illustrated and explained by examples during the presentation:

1. PM is about knowledge and about politics
PM and other measurement tools like cost-accounting, definition of products etc. have two sides:
a) They are necessary to describe the library, its users and its work. In order to do this, they create a representation, an image of the library by the means of numbers. The aim is here to create knowledge about the library as best as possible, i.e. to make the results of PM as similar to the real library situation as possible.
b) They are also necessary to make the right decisions for the library, both by library management and by the funding institution. In decision-making, every party involved has their own, often differing interests at stake, which they want to be realized. PM is used here to help the stakeholders prove their points. PM and statistics are therefore a playground for games of power between all parties involved in decision-making for the library. This is possible because:

2. PM is about Agreement, not about Truth
Methods and tools of PM and Statistics are not fixed and given by science, be it business administration, social science, mathematics or library science. These only provide the framework for the definition of tools and indicators. The tools themselves depend strongly on the interests and questions of the parties involved and they are negotiated between these partners during the process of measuring. They are to a considerable extent arbitrary. During the negotiation process, the stakeholders define what kind of picture they want to create of the library. As the results of measuring depend on the way the tools are worked out, and may have a severe impact on the library, (e.g. its funding, staffing and reputation), definitions and methods of measuring are keenly watched and hotly debated by all participants. Although “objectivity” and “timeless truth” are not achieved by pm and statistics, the negotiation process forces all parties to agree on common ways to count and measure a thing, and so creates a common, inter-subjective view on the library.

3. PM does not yield information, it reduces information
In order to provide a basis for decision-making, PM and statistics create a numeric image of the library. Usually, this is seen as a process of generating information about the library, e.g. “finding facts” about how the library is being used by customers. From the point of view of systems theory however, PM and S are very efficient means of reducing complexity, i.e. they reduce the immensely complex social system of a library – its staff, workflows, problems, strengths, weaknesses, the users and their motivations, etc. to a small set of numbers. Painfull as this may be, this is in fact one of the strongest points of measurement, because it would not be possible to make a decision, if all the countless facettes of a library were to be taken into account at all times. This, however, has two consequences:
a) negotiating about pm-tools means fighting over what is being included and what is being left out of the picture
b) it is, by defintion, impossible to create a completely accurate image of libraries by pm – which means, each and every pm tool, how ever well constructed and defined, will fail to accurately reproduce some of the features of the library measured. If applied to more than one library, it is bound to do some library wrong. This is not a shortcoming of the pm-tool, that can be overcome by even more definitions and preciser rules. It is necessary, because a pm-tool cannot reproduce all features of all libraries if it is to serve its purpose – making things less complex and easier to decide. Each pm tool creates its own kind of fuzziness.

4. PM can never speak for itself
PM produces a simple, manageable, but strongly reduced view on the library, and this view is bound to be blurred at some points. Therefore, pm-results are never ever self explanatory. Measuring libraries is a way of encoding information about the library in numeric form, and taking it out of its context. To generate a meaning out of a pm-result, i.e. to give meaning back to the numbers, they have to be de-coded again, i.e. they have to be interpreted and put back into a wider context. The numbers have to be re-enriched by arguments, comparisons and stories. This process is as arbitrary as the encoding (the construction of the measuring-tool). It is also done via negotiation of the stakeholders involved.

Consequences that arise out of the theses for PM and S
Discussions about PM methods are never finished, because negotiation is an integral part of their creation. Taking that into account, it is necessary to shift some attention from the method of measurement or statistics to the negotiation and interpretation process that surrounds it.

A theorem to be discussed could be that the strategic function of pm and statistics reflects on the way a library system deals with pm: e.g. the more insecure a library system is in a country (e.g. because there is no library legislation), the more reluctant it would be towards pm, because the more risk is at stake for libraries when results are bad.

Evaluation of libraries: Experiences from applying a method for non-market valuation developed in economics

Svanhild Aabø
Assoc. Prof.
Oslo University College

In a situation characterized by a growing pressure on public budgets, most public institutions are under increasing pressure to document their value. Libraries are no exception in this respect and the situation is reflected in library research. From different theoretical and methodological positions researchers are striving to develop instruments, which will make it possible to make valid statements about the value of libraries. Within the social sciences, economists have developed the most sophisticated methods for determining the value of non-market goods.

In this paper we discuss the fruitfulness of and some problems connected to making use of methods developed in economics for evaluating non-market goods when trying to determine the value of public libraries. The purpose is to provide a better understanding of the total value of a library, both its use and non-use values, as viewed by patrons as well as by non-users and potential users in the library’s environment. By surveying a representative sample of the library users and non-users and aggregate the individual preferences, an estimate of the library’s total value in the organisation can be reached.

We have conducted an empirical study of Norwegian public libraries applying one such method, the contingent valuation. In this study, the value of public libraries’ benefits was compared with the costs of providing them, thus exploring whether they had a net value. Results from the study show that the benefits from the libraries are clearly higher than the costs to provide them library services. The paper discusses the possibility of fruitful use of the contingent valuation method in evaluation of different types of libraries. Crucial for the success of the method is the construction of a scenario and a survey instrument that can measure the value of the actual library in a valid way. Based on our theoretical discussions and empirical study we conclude that such approaches developed in economics can contribute to the theoretical and methodological arsenal of library and information science.