|IFLA Management & Marketing Section
Satellite meeting in Bergen 9th to 11th of August 2005
|Trine Kolderup Flaten
Bergen Public Library
Tlf (direct): + 220.127.116.11.01 – fax: + 18.104.22.168.55
“Management, marketing, evaluation and
promotion of library services,
based on statistics, analyses
and evaluation in your own library”.
In all: 39 papers
Bergen, April 20th2005
Trine Kolderup Flaten
Alvite, Maria Luisa Diez (and Blanca Bravo Rodriguez)
Arahova, Antonia (and Sarantos Kapidakis)
Baig, Shahid Masood (and Syed Attaullah Shah)
Bin, Dai (and Jiang Cong)
Broady-Preston, Judith (and Joanna Felice)
Carcedo, Elena Roseras
Cichani, Mehdi Karimian
Cong,. Jiang (and Dai Bin)
Creaser, Claire (and J.Eric Davies)
Davies, J. Eric (and Claire Creaser)
Ferreiro, Soledad (and José Miguel Muga)
Felice, Joanna ( and Judith Broady-Preston)
Gendina, Natalia I.
Granfield, Diane (and Mark Robertson )
Hallam, Gillian (and Helen Partridge)
Huang, Michael B (and Ellen Maleszewski)
Kapidakis, Sarantos (and Antonia Arahova)
Latorre, Ignacio Zacarés (and Milagros Montón
Maleszewski, Ellen (and Michael B. Huang)
Melo, Luiza Baptista
Miribel, Marielle de
Muga, José Miguel (and Soledad Ferreiro)
Ochôa, Paula (and Gaspar Pinto)
Ortells, Milagros Montón (and Ignacio Zacares Latorre)
Partridge, Helen (and Gillian Hallam)
Pinto, Leonor Gaspar (and Paula Ochôa)
Robertson, Mark ( and Diane Granfield)
Rodriguez, Blanca Bravo
Sen, Barbara Anne
Shah, Syed Attaullah
Smith, Rebecca (and Yoo-Seong Song)
Song, Yoo-Seong (and Rebecca Smith)
Van Moorsel, Guillaume
Statistical indicators on reading
and Literacy for “Information Society”versus the “technisist”
Indices of ITU
Dr. Ksibi Ahmed
Prof of Institut Supérieur de Documentation de Tunis(a)
University of Manouba
This essay is a synthesis of statistic data and a panoply of surveys
upon the youth as the frequent majority users in the developing country.
The variables concerning their use of the Information and Communication
New Technologies (ICNT) and their use of information sources allow us
to state some significant interrogations related to the information
society and digital divide.
We intend to suggest statistical indicators concerning the evolution
of uses in frequenting libraries and the development of literacy besides
the aptitudes in using the ICNT, the informational behaviors of the
youth, as reference criteria for measuring the progress achieved by
developing countries to reduce the digital devide and establish the
best bases of cognitive society.
This hypothesis decreases relatively the dominating “technisist”
approach adopted by the Digital Access Index (DAI) International Telecommunications
Union (ITU) witch not take in account the indicators on reading though
they are significant behaviors necessary for the establishment of a
cultivated and innovating society
The DAI indicators are developed to follow the objectives the Plan of
Action of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS Geneva 2003)
wich emphasizes the establishment of a compound indice for measuring
the information society.
As a matter of face the ITU the United Nations institution leading this
World Summit instead of the UNESCO is an expression of the “technico-ecnomic
“ tendency towards the facilitation of the integration of the
ICNT in our societies and the will to equip the whole planet with the
computers to allow economic progress by means of opening new markets.
This domination technicist tendency ( see all the official literature
on the information society) is expressed by the indicators of the ITU
witch gives more privilege to the measurement of infrastructures development
( telephony services, number of PC, number of Internet users ) to classify
countries rather than the information cultural behaviors.
This quantitative indice DAI as conceived by the ITU is more orientated
towards the economic output , the users affordability and the investment.
Consequently the digital divide between the industrialized countries
and the developing countries especially the marginalized ones is imperfectly
measured by The results of the ITU 's indice. Beside the anti-globalization
movement, the dominated approach is insignificantly contested and the
quantitative indicators are rarely discussed. By criticizing the DAI,
my proposal attemps to go over the data oriented “equipment”
and enhances the debate on the outstanding human factors in order to
take them into account as the basic elements of the informational environment
of the observed country.
The indicator of the behaviors of users and information research practices
of libraries resources (Registered Users, documents loans…) as
expressed by statistic variables of UNESCO and the Library Performance
statistic Indicators of the ISO 11620 besides the LIBECON statistical
system in Europe .For the most part the youth are the strategic users
categories who are the frequent majority users of libraries and who
posses ability to access and use ICTs, the basis to establish the information
society in developing countries. Statistic indicators of these categories
of users must be introduced in order to elaborate realistic international
system to follow up performance evaluation and benchmarking (both qualitative
and quantitative) of the information behaviors change.
We can put aside hurried and premature statistical modelization by emphasizing
the variety of behaviors and attitudes of strategic users categories
and identifiying the specific usages of ICTs and libraries. The sugged
approach is similar to the measure tendancies giving a privilege to
the practice and the “e-readness” developed by several research
center. Specifities in the information society should be multiple .though
this criticism, though modest, of the limit of certain indicators, we
we could have a strategic outlook in a re-defining the indicators of
the information society we want plural societies and concentrated on
the socio-cultural variables and notr on the technological
The conception and the realization of documentary and information services
are based on the knowledge of strategic users categories.
The development of documentary organizations and the information retrieval
systems presuppose the revision of concepts , techniques of investigation
(statistic indicators) in library science and information sciences where
the theoretical and practical approaches remainsufficient
Indicateurs statistiques de la lecture et la
littératie pour « la société de l’information
»face aux indices « technicistes » de l’UIT
Cet essai est une synthèse des données statistiques et
d’une panoplie d’enquêtes auprès des jeunes,
usagers fréquemment majoritaires dans les pays en développement.
Les variables concernant leurs usages des Nouvelles Technologies de
l'Information et de la Communication (NTICs) et leurs utilisations des
sources d’information nous permet d’émettre quelques
hypothèses significatives concernant la société
de l’information et la fracture numérique.
Il s’agit de proposer des indicateurs statistiques concernant
l’évolution des pratiques de fréquentation des bibliothèques
et du développement de la littératie et les capacités
d’usage des Nouvelles Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication
(NTICs), des comportements informationnelles des jeunes, comme critères
de référence pour mesurer les progrès réalisés
par les pays en développement pour réduire la fracture
numérique et établir les meilleurs soubassements d’une
société de l’information cognitive
Cette hypothèse relativise l’approche techniciste dominante
adoptée par l’index sur l'accès numérique
(DAI Digital Access Index) de l’UIT l’Union Internationale
des Télécommunications qui omet les indicateurs sur la
lecture et la littératie qui sont pourtant les comportements
nécessaires pour former une société cultivée
et innovante .
Les indicateurs de connectivité communautaire DAI sont élaborés
par l’UIT en application des dispositions du plan d’action
du Sommet mondial de la société de l'information (SMSI
Genève 2003) qui préconise d’instituer un indice
composite de «Mesure de la société de l'information».
D’ailleurs le choix de l’UIT l’institution onusienne
organisatrice du SMSI au détriment de l’UNESCO traduit
la tendance « technico-économique »devant faciliter
l’intégration des NTICs dans toutes nos sociétés
et souligne par la même la volonté d’équiper
d’ordinateurs la planète toute entière afin de permettre
la croissance économique par l’ouverture de nouveaux marchés
Cette tendance techniciste dominante ( voir la littérature officielle
sur la société de l’information) s’exprime
dans sa forme la plus manifeste par les indicateurs de l’UIT qui
privilégient la mesure du développement des infrastructures(les
services de la téléphonie, le nombre de PC pour, le nombre
des utilisateurs d’Internet) pour classer les pays au dépens
de la dimension des pratiques culturelles de l’information
Cet indice quantitatif DAI tel qu’il est conçu par l’UIT
est trop orienté vers la rentabilité économique,
la solvabilité des usagers et les retours sur investissements.
Par conséquent, la fracture numérique entre les pays industrialisés
et les pays en développement surtout les plus marginalisés
(Afrique et Moyen-Orient) est imparfaitement mesurée par l’indice
de l’UIT. En dehors des cercles alter-mondialistes, il existe
très peu de contestation de l’approche dominante et encore
moins, bien sur, de remise en cause de ces indicateurs quantitatifs.
Par la remise en cause du DAI ma proposition tente de dépasser
les données orientées « équipement »
et ainsi de susciter le débat sur les facteurs humains déterminants
pour prendre en compte des éléments fondateurs de l’environnement
informationnel du pays observé.
Les indicateurs des habitudes et les comportements d’utilisations
des sources et des ressources de bibliothèques (Nbre d’inscrits
à la bibliothèque, Nbre d’ouvrages empruntés)
et des actions minimes autour de la maîtrise de l’informatique,
telles qu’ils sont exprimés par les statistiques de l’UNESCO
et les indicateurs de performance dans la norme ISO 11620 et par le
système européen LIBECON des statistiques des services
de bibliothèques comportent des indicateurs pour des conditions
informationnelles propres à chaque pays .
Ce sont surtout les jeunes, qui sont les catégories stratégiques
des usagers fréquemment majoritaires des bibliothèques
et qui possèdent les capacités d’usage des NTICs
, la base de la réalisation d’une société
de l’information dans les pays en développement . Des indicateurs
statistiques comparables de ces catégories d’usagers doivent
être introduits pour élaborer un système international
réaliste de suivi et d'évaluation (à la fois qualitative
et quantitative), des changements du comportement informationnel .
Il s’agit de réfuter une modélisation statistique
hâtive en mettant en exergue la diversité des comportements
et des attitudes informationnelles des jeunes et de connaître
leurs usages spécifiques aussi bien des (NTIC) que leurs des
bibliothèques. L’approche proposée est celle des
différentes tendances de mesures, privilégiant les usages
et la « e-readiness », développées par plusieurs
centres de recherches mettant en exergue les spécificités
dans la société d’information.
A travers ces remises en cause, même limitées, de l’étroitesse
de certains indicateurs, on aurait alors une visée stratégique
dans la redéfinition des indicateurs de la société
de la connaissance qui devrait être multiple plurielle et se concentrer
plutôt sur les aspects «socioculturels » que sur les
La base de la conception et de la réalisation des bibliothèques
virtuelles est une connaissance approfondie des catégories stratégiques
des usagers. le développement d’organisations documentaires
communicationnelles et de systèmes de repérage de l’information
présuppose une réadaptation des concepts, des techniques
d’investigation dans les disciplines bibliothéconomiques
et des sciences de l’information, où l’effort théorique
reste encore insuffisant.
Parameters and indicators for
providers of electronic publications evaluation.
María Luisa Alvite Díez and Blanca Rodríguez Bravo
Área de Biblioteconomía y Documentación.
Facultad de Filosofía y Letras
University de León
The specific aims of this paper is to present an evaluation model and
to share a methodology for the analysis comparative of information distributed,
characteristics of interfaces and various functions and added value
services of providers of electronic publications. This model has been
applied to: Emerald, Kluwer Online, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, Taylor
& Francis and Wiley InterScience in order to test the validity of
the methodology proposed. This analysis would permit the acquisition
of trustworthy information on the nature and quality of these systems.
The study was undertaken within the framework of a research project
financed by the University of Leon for the years 2004/2005. The chief
objective of this project is to gain an overall knowledge of the provision
of electronic information, its distribution and use by the academic
community so as to allow universities and their libraries to negotiate
with the large multinationals in the publishing sector on the basis
of objective criteria on quality and utilization.
After revising the literature of information retrieval systems evaluation,
the process of analysis was organized around four parameters, within
which there were a number of grouped indicators as sub?parameters:
A) Extension of Contents
· Horizontal Coverage: Volume of electronic publications.
· Thematic Coverage: Collections of scientific disciplines.
· Vertical Coverage: Retrospective reach of the contents.
B) Access Structure
· Access Control Systems Used: Passwords, IP address
authentication, digital certification and privileged users (superusers).
· Search and Navigation Performance: The levels and
fields for searches, retrieval language, record of searches, browsing
or navigation categories, fields with hypertext links, granularity
of searches, and so forth.
· Presentation of Results: Descriptive data, criteria
for ordering results and possibilities of ordering them, formats of
publications, display of associated graphs and pictures, and similar.
C) Characteristics of the Interface
· Design: Correct display, suitable layout for information,
highlighting of elements, use of intuitively understandable forms
and the like.
· Ergonomics: Characteristics and capacity for selection
of items, speed and reliability of download and printing of entries,
languages available and possibilities for personalizing the access
· User-friendliness: Syntax of messages, error messages,
nature and suitability of user guides and help systems, possible system
tips, and so forth.
D) Functions and Added Value Services
· Licensing Modes: Transparency of information and
applicable law, contract availability for publications independently
of subscription to the printed format, types of licence, guarantees
offered to the licensee, rights to back?numbers, policies for digitizing,
safety and privacy of data, multi?site use and access from outside
· Functions: User registers, quotation systems, keyword
notification services, quotation alert functions and linking techniques
Added Value Services: Teaching packages, new item sections,
service to librarians, service to authors, integration with library
services, standardization, statistical reports, and similar.
Promoting Library Services, Designing
Marketing Strategies, Evaluating our Past and our Present, Feeling more
Optimistic about our Libraries Future
National Library of Greece
National Library of Greece
Our paper includes a proposed model related to statistics according
to the Greek public and academic libraries. We demonstrate evaluation
practices and mainly best-practice and “best-vision” strategy
encouraging the improvement in the provision of library services not
only in Greece but in a generally implemented framework. Greece is making
a great effort to achieve a continuous improvement of the libraries'
services. The paper aims to demystify marketing for librarians. Practical
solutions are provided on how to implement a marketing strategy, with
particular emphasis on the value of using electronic information resources.
It also shows the link between promoting library services and raising
the profile of the library.
In an age where we need to compete among the myriad of Internet content
providers and fight for the limited attention span of our library patrons,
marketing and promotion of our services are paramount to our best well-being.
While special libraries may tailor their services to their specific
target audience, public libraries and academic libraries, by definition,
is catered to the general public and to the big academic and student
community at large. Because of their heterogeneous market, satisfying
the customers’ needs of public and academic libraries can be very
challenging. So, with the active collaboration with The Greek Ministry
of Education and especially with The Special Secretary for Libraries
and Archives, we gathered statistics and attention is given to the following
Understanding Customer’s Needs
And as a consequence designing:
Objectives and Strategies
A good marketing plan begins with a mission statement that defines the
objectives of the library or the information centre, which includes
an identification of the target market segments. Realistic and measurable
targets set should be subjected to ongoing evaluation process as part
of the marketing plan, and used to adjust or revise the marketing activities.
Evaluations can be in the form of official measurement systems including
financial accounting, computerized usage tracking, user satisfaction
surveys, or the less structured methods of verbal or written feedback
As librarians we should be actively marketing and promoting our library
services. The basic aim of marketing is to know and understand our users
in order that the library is able to satisfy those needs in an effective
way. A marketing plan is an essential tool which will enable us to focus
our efforts. The market plan should assess where you are now (market
research), where you are going (objectives) and how you are going to
get there (strategies).
LOCAL officials response to evaluation
practice in PUBLIC LIBRARIES: the main stakes and challenges in france
Dr. Lamia BADRA (Maître de Conférences)
Director of the IUP Métiers du Livre et Multi-supports
University of Blaise Pascal
What are the emerging performance of libraries required by government
officials in charge of public services? how should librarians in the
precise case of public libraries improve their management to meet their
elects’ expectation? and what are the expertise and recommendations
of government official evaluation institutions that product yearly statistics
about libraries and their services? These are the main issues the paper
asks to identify from the government officials’ viewpoints, the
recent challenges of evaluation practice in French Public libraries.
Under my direction, four trainees from the ENSSIB (Ecole Nationale Supérieure
en Sciences de l’Information et des Bibliothèques) that
succeeded the competitive national entry and intended after training
to work in territorial libraries, held a survey from mars to may 2004.
This study concerned 164 communal elects as well as three of the DLL’s
(Direction du Livre et de la Lecture) representatives of the Minister
of Culture. The objective of this study is to check whether librarians
and their local officials in France apprehend performance and evaluation
in theory and practice alike. First, the paper describes the particular
institutional context of public libraries to justify the problem addressed
and the methodology chosen in the study. It defines the primary missions,
outcomes and services quality from local officials’ perspectives.
Then the paper provides an overview of their critical aspects of the
methods, strategies, indicators and data collection developed by practitioners
to show their performance. In particular, the study reveals that cost
does not show up as a priority to elects. However, applying public management
with a heavy emphasis on planning and environment studies seems to be
a key factor of evaluating performance. The paper concludes that further
communication about performance evaluation between librarians and government
officials is required. It is the practitioner’s role to give a
sense to his evaluation practice so that to support budget and/or public
policy decisions made by local officials.
Digital Library Services and
its Impact with reference to Developing Countries: A Case of Faculty
of Health Sciences Library, Aga Khan University.
Syed Attaullah Shah
Aga Khan University (AKU)
Prof. Dr. Shahid Masood Baig
Aga Khan University
Aga Khan University
Introduction: Digital libraries play a vital role
in providing more appropriate information in less time with ease of
access. A digital library is more near to user’s minds, and paves
a bridge between the sea of information and users needs. We explored
the new sources and media of information. Material in different formats
i.e. audio, video, image etc. especially in CDs are more important to
understand medical information. Non-book material i.e. reports, conference
papers, introductory material etc. are also very useful to cope with
latest developments in the medical field. New services are evaluated
by the users of AKU Library by conducting a Users survey; so that the
users must be competent in their ability at the point of service to
distill data into useful information to access growing information in
different formats and to meet the ever increasing patient care needs.
As the result of the survey, we could strengthen the systems and services;
and the library users will also know and access required information
and there is no need to waste time and money both in visiting other
libraries to acquire needed information.
Objective: The objective of this paper is to discuss the developments
in repository, User Interface and Operational systems of the library
and its impact on the users.
Methodology and Procedural Detail: The purpose of
paper is to share the expanding designed models, new developmental practices
and their evaluation at AKU library’s services for the digital
Repository Tier: Two types of repository 1) Store the
information about the software agents such as programs and the symbols
and identifications of data formats. 2) Store the full text data of
library holdings such as audio, video, image, text and further links
separately in a server, from the CDs and other recourses. In non-Book
material such as the citation of reports, introductory material, conference
papers, dissertations etc…by using Informix and SQL server databases
running under UNIX and Windows respectively.
User Interface Tier: two major types of user interface
module are designed according to the search requirements of the users.
1) CD Library, it deals to retrieve data by author, title, keyword etc…form
different formats of material such as audio, video, text, image etc…without
opening and browsing any CD with the capability of running the full
document by using Active Server Pages (ASP). 2) Non-book material, it
deals with the documents which were under utilized before this system.
By this new system all type of gray and fugitive material can be accessed.
For non-book library a separate classification scheme is designed and
applied successfully. A manual multi approaches storage and retrieval
process system is designed to physically access the material by using
different searching tools via material type, subject heading, organization
and Call no.
(SDI) Service - Operational Tier: In the system the
software matches acquiring documents with the users preference and generate
and send an email to the selected users. To run this Selective Dissemination
of Information (SDI) service Informix is using under UNIX.
Conclusion: Three major digital services were initiated
at Aga Khan University, FHS library during the year 2004,
1) CD library. 2) Non-book material and 3) SDI Service. After few months
use of these new electronic services; a survey of library users was
conducted. As the result of survey, we evaluated new services and collected
statistics of increasing number of users of digital contents. Benefits
for health practitioners, students and researchers, and some problems
with suggestions are also discussed.
Keywords: Digital Library, CD Library, Non-book Material,
SDI (Selective Dissemination of Information) Services, User Services
Invite Readers to Join Assessment
- the Organization and Application of Reader questionnaire
Library of North China Electric Power University, Beijing
Capital Normal University, Beijing,
Keywords: Library assessment, reader questionnaire, statistic
When you enter a library, the most you will read are publicities of
kinds of books and magazines. While in commercial circumstances, you
will have a catalogue as well as a reader questionnaire, and also usually
in magazines. However, such questionnaire is seldom given in daily works
of libraries unless we really want to do a questionnaire. On the Internet,
one can log into any chat room, and express one’s opinions freely.
It seems people nowadays addict to the Internet, but it needs expensive
applications. Though Libraries are brighter and more spacious than the
Internet, and have more reading rooms and more librarians, why can not
libraries attain to Internet functions? Here are three reasons: libraries
need quiet; readers are fond of searching books themselves; and oriental
people are introversive. Communication between readers and librarians
is few. Readers do come to librarians unless they need help eagerly.
Questionnaire can be close to readers mind.
Reader questionnaire is a long term way for librarian communicating
with readers. Ticks can instead of complex words saying; readers only
ask 1-2 questions at a time, but questionnaires can broaden their mind
and questions, and also give librarians more information about readers’
requirements. Making questionnaires is a feasible and practical way,
and a traditional way of communication. According to different reader
requirements, different questionnaires can be made. Topics can cover
many aspects. They could be shown with catalogues in a standing place
in the library with a recovery box aside. If readers have any suggestion
or advice, they would not choose catalogues, but questionnaires. In
a word, questionnaire is a way of assessment, but we use it little.
There are lots of service items in universities libraries, and many
of them can make readers questionnaires. We can choose problems that
most readers confront with, and can also deal with problems only faced
by a few people. Resources of researches on reader questionnaire are
from traditional and on-Internet questionnaires. Communication could
be made, so long as we do questionnaires.
The main readers in universities’ libraries are teachers and students.
They are the direct beneficiaries of literatures, so they are the spokesmen
of the literatures. It is a problem that in the work of library assessment,
the people who usually join in are experts in different fields of learning,
but seldom readers. If we attach importance to questionnaires as merchants
do,have reader index in the assessment regulations, fix the times questionnaires
should do, consult information from original questionnaires readers
have done when we do the work, we will do better in our assessment and
in our service.
Questionnaire should be made according to readers’ requirements.
It could be changed. Some are practical so that can use longer; others
are not functional and less taken, then we can revise it. Questionnaire
can be considered as different program of psychotherapy as we do library
service. Traditional library is an old man since it has more than 100
years; digital library is a child since it just be born for few years.
Questionnaire is like effective prescription, to use readers growing
requirements to cure deficiency of libraries service, and perfect the
libraries work. Readers’ requirements are the “psychotherapy”
for libraries growing up.
Appendix in the article: kinds of reader questionnaires and statistic
Building better customer relationships:
University of Malta, a case study
Dr Judith Broady-Preston
Department of Information Studies
University of Wales
University of Malta Library, Malta.
This paper will report the results of a research project, conducted
during 2003/4, which examined the relationship between the University
community and the University Library in Malta. In the period 1999-2003,
the University of Malta (UoM) increased its student population from
5,148 in 1999 to 9,203 in 2003 (Bezzina), together with an expansion
in academic staff numbers from 490 Full Time Equivalents (FTEs) in 1999
to 543 FTEs in 2003 (Gatt). However, the UoM Library’s annual
reports revealed that book loans decreased from 158,204 in 1999 to 121,627
in 2003 (Mangion 27,43); a 23% decline over 5 years. Thus, at a time
of great expansion within the University, there was no concomitant increase
in library usage, but rather a decline on previous usage levels. Therefore,
a research project was established to investigate the relationship between
the library and its user population, examining:
How academic, non-academic staff and students acquired relevant information.
The degree to which library services, staff, products and prices affected
user relationships with the library.
Whether creating an electronic relationship between library users and
information providers, adopting a customer relationship management (CRM)
and communities of practice (CoP) approach would improve relationships
and increase library usage.
Relationships consisting of a series of transactions between library
staff and users will be of differing lifetimes within an academic environment,
ranging from the relatively short-term one between librarians and students,
to a potentially long-term one between academics and librarians (Rowley
45). Communities of Practice (CoP) are groups of people
“who share an interest in a domain of knowledge” (De Cagna
Developing CoPs in Universities is of especial importance, as they ensure
that the intellectual capital created is shared and used effectively.
By creating an online community, librarians may facilitate this knowledge
Data were collected and analysed from six focus groups from the amongst
the University population - four for library user (academics, non-academics,
post-graduates, and undergraduates) and two for service providers (senior
and junior library staff).
Mapping the results against the three principal aims outlined above,
we found that:
academic and non-academic staff had access to information providers
who were fulfilling their requirements more efficiently than the library.
Moreover, as academics were already members of CoPs, this enabled them
to acquire information from conferences, overseas colleagues, journals
and so forth. Students were benefiting from these communities as peripheral
participants. Thus, the University library was no longer of central
importance in the provision of information to the university community.
the demand for information resources (product) was greater than the
availability of the existing resources, causing a decrease in customer
satisfaction and retention.
the development of a technology infrastructure, the strengthening of
the collections, the training of staff and customers and the collaboration
between academics and subject specialists were considered essential
prerequisites for the future development of library services.
Management and marketing in the
Library and Documentation Centre of Artium, Basque Centre-Museum of
Elena Roseras Carcedo
Library and Documentation Department Manager
ARTIUM, Basque Centre-Museum of Contemporary Art
Devising a marketing programme in the Library and Documentation Centre
of Artium involves a number of different tasks such as analysing library
resources and services, drafting strategic marketing plans and establishing
an evaluation programme to enable us to assess the extent to which our
goals have been achieved.
Firstly, an evaluation model has been established to ensure the total
quality of the services offered by the library. The aim of the methodology
used to assess the quality of the services offered is to obtain objective
information of a quantitative and qualitative nature and in a systematic
manner, as a basis for the decisions to be taken in this Centre in the
The marketing programme also includes a comparison of the products
and services offered by the library with those available on the market.
This will allow us to develop the appropriate programmes in accordance
with specific user groups.
The systematic evaluation of programmes represents an essential element
in the management of the library. In accordance with the comprehensive
approach that we wish to give the evaluation process, this does not
begin when the activities end but before these are planned and while
they are being carried out.
The Iranian Consultative Assembly Library, Museum and
Documentation Center (ICALIB)
Mehdi Karimian Cichani
Iranian Consultative Assembly Library
Museum and Documentation Center
The main goal of the Iranian Consultative Assembly Library, Museum
Documentation Center (ICALIB) is to acquire the legal, political,
cultural, economic and social works mainly on Iran and Islam,
preservation of the national heritage in order to serve the MPs, the
researchers from inside and outside the country, the university students
and the public.
The ICALIB is managed based on the process-based management; i.e.,
library system is focused on the progress of the process of the
activities. The process starts with the client’s request and ends
the satisfaction of the client by getting appropriate and on-time
services, of course with high quality. It will be easier to understand
the process through planning its map and planning a sharp map of the
process, changes the processes to measurable activities.
On the other hand, by determining the standards of the tasks and
activities, the library staff and/or teamworks can evaluate their own
functions and this, by itself, causes the cooperation among the
contribution of the staff and the overall success of the organization.
To enhance the efficiency and effectiveness in the personal, hierarchical
and organizational levels, in addition to finding the educational needs,
it should be tried to step in the way of the permanent development.
variety of the clients’ needs, the ever enhancement of the clients’
qualitative and quantitative level of expectations, on one hand, and
changing of the information resources and the necessity of answering
communicational needs, on the other hand, cause the filling of the lack
of the necessary trainings and also the enhancement of the educational
rate, at least, along with the rate of the social and cultural changes.
From secondary school to the
world of work: the experience of evaluating Information Literacy skills
development at Glasgow Caledonian University (GCU)
Dr. John Crawford
Library Research Officer
Glasgow Caledonian University
Glasgow Caledonian University has a substantial background in survey
and evaluation work extending over some ten years – see website
Crawford, John Reviewing a programme of evaluation in an academic library:
the case of Glasgow Caledonian University, Performance measurement
and metrics, June, 2003, vol. 4 , no.3, 2003, pp. 113-121.
More recently the library was one of the first ten participants in the
LIRG/SCONUL Value and Impact study (2003-2004) in which GCU chose to
focus on the impact of electronic information services on users. The
outcomes have been published in three articles and, in a separate project,
the Library also worked with a secondary school in a deprived area of
Glasgow to assess ICT skill levels among the pupils (the Drumchapel
The outcomes of all these studies have led to a need to focus on the
information literacy agenda because very variable skill levels were
identified in both the secondary and tertiary sectors. A need to understand
the relationship between information skills teaching in the secondary
and tertiary sectors was also identified.
The application centres around reporting on the results of two surveys
which were undertaken as part of the LIRG/SCONUL Value and Impact Study:
a survey of EIS/IL skills among undergraduates and a study of alumni
(former students who have now graduated). The undergraduate study supports
the previous view of steady if uneven progress across different subject
areas but also cites as factors the pervasiveness of IT systems in the
tertiary sector and their growth in the secondary sector. The subset
of data comprising responses from first year students is especially
useful as it gives a perspective on new students IL skills. The alumni
questionnaire data emphasises the growing importance of information
literacy in the workplace and the important role of the University in
developing it. Considerable gratitude and respect for the role of GCU
was expressed by respondents drawn from all over the world. Information
literacy and the student employability agenda have been facilitated
by the University and its services.
The two surveys together give an ‘all through’ picture of
IL skills at GCU from new students who have only just completed secondary
education, through to the world of work and the application there of
IL skills learned at GCU. IL practice and evaluation tends to be sector
specific and the research aims to encourage a more holistic approach
to research and development in the subject area with a view to developing
a holistic agenda which will extend from school experience to a lifetime
of work. The research will encourage further development in this new
and challenging area.
At the time of applying a new research project has begun, reviewing
the relationship between IL skills training in the secondary and tertiary
sectors, and interim findings on this work will also be reported on.
The data collected is also being used to inform the further development
of GCU’s ICT/IL training programme.
Taking A Measured Approach to
Library Management: Performance Evidence Applications and Culture
Deputy Director and Senior Statistician
Research School of Informatics,
Dr. J.E. Davies
Research School of Informatics
Performance evidence plays an important role in the management of modern
information and library services. Managers seek to achieve an array
of objectives and undertake a whole range of activities. How well they
manage is influenced by access to appropriate and reliable supporting
evidence and their capacity to utilise it intelligently. This paper
outlines the general context of managing through performance evidence
and draws on experience acquired by LISU, firstly to discuss how a culture
of managing with performance evidence may be developed in an organisation
and, secondly to describe, with examples from different organisations,
the scope for applying performance evidence to service development.
Information and library services facilitate access to information,
they provide space for the community to engage individually or collectively
with information and they offer stimulus through a range of formal activities.
Information and library services serve as many faceted agencies because
their user community draws upon them for learning, leisure, work and
living. These represent a formidable array of functions and demands.
Performance evidence, built on a solid foundation of service goals,
has an important contribution to make to their management. The portfolio
of performance data is vast and varied and ranges from hard quantitative
data to the softer social indicators that are growing in importance
The successful application of performance metrics to managing services
relies on an awareness of their potential coupled with the skills to
apply them. LISU has worked with one library and information service
on an extensive programme to develop an evidence based management culture
at all levels in the organisation. The project has entailed an analysis
of strategies and operations, an examination of evidence gathering and
use, and it has featured training workshops and service assessment health
checks performed by LISU. The outcomes are encouraging in terms of the
utilisation of performance evidence and service quality as the examples
in the paper illustrate.
Performance Health Checks offer a tangible way of assessing the position
of a service in relation to internal targets as well as national standards.
Extracts from LISU’s work in this area are presented to illustrate
specific service improvement and development over a time frame.
Performance metrics also enable the overall performance of specific
projects and initiatives to be assessed. LISU was engaged in the development
of a toolkit to support the evaluation of a series of reader promotion
activities in the UK. The evaluation covered a whole range of factors
including inputs and outputs as well as impact assessment through data
regarding user reactions. Examples indicate how the evidence identified
the success of the activities and facilitated advocacy to support for
Benchmarking using appropriate performance evidence enables useful
comparisons to be made with similar organisations. The challenge is
to identify suitable comparators which are similar in size, character
and culture. Strategic benchmarking explores a series of key service
parameters are to assess overall performance. Process benchmarking compares
and reviews the detailed aspects of specific activities and methods
in organisations and it implies a level of collaborative exchange of
data. Both approaches offer considerable scope for identifying areas
for development and improvement as well as evidence for advocacy, as
The paper concludes with an observation that managers need to become
even more active in anticipating the need for, and using appropriate
A Methodology for Innovation
at the Library of the Chilean National Congress
Mrs. Soledad Ferreiro
Library's Director of the Chilean National Congress
Mr. José Miguel Muga
A Method for Innovation at the Chilean Library of Congress
Since September 2003, the Chilean Library of the National Congress (BCN)
is involved in a deep management change, from an information product
administration to a customer (in particular, the parliamentary community)
For the BCN this has meant generating a new operational model to manage
the service and product parameters.
In such a perspective, the BCN has favored the identification of contacts
with its clients, the acknowledgement of each interaction and the associated
experience. As an example, the concern about the numbers of times a
book is requested has been replaced with the number of books requested
by the client. In general terms, the BCN privileges to acknowledge its
interactions and experiences with each client.
This approach to management has shown a critical and challenging problem:
a significant number of non users or low frequency users within our
To approach this recent problem (– of long ago but recently revealed
problem--), we have dealt with a specific methodology for listening
and identifying opportunities to create services for solving non users
dissatisfaction and conflict. The next step is to develop innovative
products to transform them into active and demanding users.
Adding value to the parliamentary community shows how the institutional
process of Re- Invention the Library is undergoing .
The paper to be presented in Bergen, Norway, 2005, shares these major
outlook and innovation processes.
Coordination of higher educational
institutions and professional library associations – the key to
training quality rise of librarians of XXI century
Natalia I. Gendina
Director of Research and Development
Institute of Information technologies of Social Sphere
Cameroon State University of Culture and Arts
Doctor of pedagogical sciences, Professor.
The main preconditions of library education’s renovation are
information society establishing, global informatization, rapid development
of ICT, realization of information resources as strategical resource
of the society, the change of educational paradigm from “education
to the rest of life” to “education during the rest of life”,
strengthening of library role as the most important social institution
providing access to knowledge and information.
The content renovation of library education, training quality rise
of library staff is the subject of interest for both higher educational
institutions providing highly qualified library specialists’ training
and professional library community. The result of this work depends
on a productive dialogue between the educational institutions and organizations
expressing the requirements of professional community to the level of
graduates’ training. The most important corporate organization
of professional community of librarians is library association. The
main problem lies in the development of working mechanism of coordination
of educational institutions and library associations. It gets a special
acuteness under conditions of development and introduction of state
During the last decade in Russia the activity of standardization of
education including a library one got development. Standardization is
deeply connected with renovation of the content of education. Thus,
instead of the speciality “Librarianship and bibliography”
traditionally taught by the Institutes of Culture and Arts in Russia
since 2003 they started training staff in a new speciality “Library-information
activity”. The standard provides training graduates in such qualifications
as “Librarian-bibliographer, teacher”, “Manager of
information resources”, “Technologist of automated information
resources” within above-mentioned speciality.
For the first time there was close coordination between developers
of educational standards and professional library community –
Russian Library Association (RLA) which provided a possibility of a
large-scale professional discussion of standards and attraction leading
specialists of library-information activity as experts.
However mutual activity demanded the perfection of coordination mechanism
of educational institutions, libraries and RLA. The solution of the
problem of advanced quality of library staff training requires its stratification:
· Level of educational institutions: development of scientific
base of the content of curricula; creation of text-books and educational
instruction materials for library-information staff’s training;
· Level of RLA: generalization and expressing libraries’
requirements to qualification level and quality of library-information
staff’s training; organization of discussion and examination
of standards, instruction books and text-books in the sphere of library
education at the RLA sessions and in RLA Newsletter;
· Level of libraries: development and introduction requirements
to qualification and quality of information-library specialists’
training; participation in examination of educational standards, text
and instructional books.
In my opinion, the problem of coordination of educational institutions
and professional library associations are not of national but of international
La question de l’évaluation
des bibliothèques publiques soulève de nombreux problèmes
d’ordre méthodique et technique
Conservateur en chef
Directeur de la Bibliothèque municipale de Fresnes
Sur le plan méthodique, la principale question demeure celle
de la définition explicite des missions, buts et objectifs d’une
bibliothèque publique : quel bénéfice la bibliothèque
doit-elle apporter à la communauté. Si la réponse
est plus ou moins évidente pour les bibliothèques universitaires,
elle l’est moins pour les bibliothèques publiques où
apparaissent des réponses très diversifiées, sinon
opposées. La phase préalable de toute évaluation,
est donc de définir des objectifs concrets et non équivoques
avec leurs autorités de tutelle et leurs partenaires. C’est
alors, et alors seulement, qu’il leur sera possible d’analyser
les besoins de la population à desservir (au regard de ces objectifs),
puis d’évaluer les résultats et les impacts de leur
action afin d’ajuster l’offre documentaire et de service,
et de rendre compte à ses mandants (autorité politique,
population, partenaires, etc.), de l’effet et impact des actions
entreprises, du bon emploi des ressources attribuées ; bref de
démontrer que la bibliothèques est une institution utile
à la société et que l’argent public à
été employé de la façon la plus efficace
possible. Ce faisant, le management des bibliothèques met ainsi
en œuvre des méthodes associant politiques publiques et
Les principes méthodiques mis en place, il est alors possible
d’aborder les aspects techniques pour adapter aux besoins politiques
et stratégiques du management de la bibliothèque.
Dans la réalisation des tableaux de bord, l’apport des
systèmes d’information géographiques, s’avère
tout particulièrement adapté.
A cet égard, l’intérêt des systèmes
d’information géographique est double :
· Il constitue une base de donnée dont les informations
peuvent être comparées (sous réserve d’harmonisation),
avec celle de la bibliothèque ;
· Il permet une représentation graphique et simple de
données complexes et permet de faire ainsi de l’évaluation
une pratique naturelle et non une charge de travail supplémentaire.
C’est pourquoi, s’inspirant des voies ouvertes par Christie
Koontz, la bibliothèque de Fresnes (France) développe,
en coopération avec le département du Val de Marne, la
connexion de son système d’information et de gestion de
bibliothèque avec un système d’information géographique.
Cette expérimentation vise à doter chaque membre du personnel
d’un tableau de bord lui permettant de suivre son action sur chaque
composante du territoire, comme par exemple :
· Pourcentage de la population d’une tranche d’âge
déterminée de chaque fréquentant la bibliothèque
· Répartition par quartier de l’usage des différents
segments de la collection ;
· Toutes combinaisons de données relatives aux usagers,
aux services et au collections, utiles à l’évaluation
du niveau de succès d’un objectif préalablement
C’est le compte rendu de cette expérimentation, appuyé
sur une démonstration qui sera présenté à
The question of the evaluation of the public
libraries raises many problems of a methodical and technical nature.
On the methodical level, the principal question remains that of the
explicit definition of the missions, goals and objectives of a public
library: which benefit the library must it bring to the community. If
the answer is more or less obvious for the university libraries, it
is it less for the public libraries where appear much diversified answers…
if not opposite. The preliminary phase of any evaluation, is thus to
define concrete objectives and not ambiguities with their Official Authorities
and their partners. It is then, and then only, that it will be possible
for them to analyze the needs for the population to serve (taking into
consideration these objective), then to evaluate the results and the
impacts of their action in order
to adjust the documentary offer and of service, and to return account
to its constituents (political authority, population, partners, etc.),
effect and impact of the actions undertaken, good use of the allotted
resources; in short to show that the libraries is an institution useful
for the company and that public money at summer employed in the most
effective possible way. By doing this, the management of the libraries
refers to public policies trends and sciences associating with marketing
Methodical principles set up, it is then possible to approach the technical
aspects to adapt to the political and strategic needs management for
the library. In the realization of the dashboards, the contribution
of the geographical information systems, prove particularly adapted.
In this respect, the interest of the geographical information systems
· It constitutes a base of data whose information can be compared
(subject to harmonization of data), with that of the library;
· It transform complex data in a simple representation and
makes possible to make evaluation a natural practice and not an additional
This is why, taking as a starting point the ways opened by Christie
Koontz, the library of Fresnes (France) develops, in co-operation with
the department of the Valley of the Marne, the connection of its and
management information system of library with a geographical information
system. This experimentation aims at equipping each member with the
personnel of a dashboard enabling him to follow its action on each component
of the territory, such as for example:
· Percentage of the population of a given age bracket of each
attending the library;
· Distribution by district of the use of the various segments
of the collection;
· All combinations of data relating to the users, with the
services and the collections, useful for the evaluation of the level
of success of a beforehand definite objective.
It is the report of this experimentation, supported on a demonstration
which will be presented at Bergen.
Getting Help and Doing Research:
What do patrons want?
An exploratory study comparing VR users with Reference Desk users
Librarian and Coordinator of Virtual Reference
Ryerson University Library
Reference Librarian and Coordinator of Virtual Reference
York University – Scott Library
Are virtual reference users reaching a new type of user? Are they addressing
substantially different needs and preferences than traditional reference
services? Should virtual reference be a key player in addressing new
service pressures as a result of the growth in digital content and the
shift to remote usage of library resources? These questions formed the
impetus for a comparative study that was conducted to explore the preferences
of our users for different modes of reference assistance as well as
a number of other related variables like visits to the library, preferences
for location when doing research, types of resources they consult and
expectations of staff. A survey was administered to reference desk users,
virtual reference users and visitors to our web sites. To further explore
these issues a series of focus groups both in-person and online were
conducted. This session will report on the findings of the study, the
methodologies employed and problems encountered, and suggestions for
Library Statistics without Fear
Michael B. Huang, Senior Assistant Librarian
Health Sciences Center Library
Stony Brook University
Ellen Maleszewski, Professor
School of Health Technology and Management
Stony Brook University
Many librarians who don’t have a mathematical or statistical background
are often intimidated by a wide spectrum of statistics. A basic understanding
of statistics would help librarians answer reference inquiries, write
successful proposals for funding of libraries, and to conduct research.
This paper will address the following topics: (1) what are basic descriptive
statistical methods and how they can be utilized; (2) how to understand
“statistically significant” and how to stretch the truth
using graphs and charts; and (3) how to understand, interpret, and utilize
statistics and a variety of professional research literature to help
manage your library.
Comparing libraries. From official
statistics to effective strategies
Faculty of Journalism, Library and Information Science
Oslo University College
The countries of Europe are turning from industrial to knowledge based
societies. In that process the social role of public libraries is changing.
Their main services continue as before. Libraries still lend books,
answer questions and provide space for a great variety of social and
cultural activities. But the interpretation of the services changes.
In industrial societies, culture and education are seconday sectors,
somewhat divorced from "real work". Our children were educated
before they started working - and adults enjoyed culture as a form of
recreation outside working hours. A skilled worker
was skilled for the rest of his life.
In knowledge societies, production is based on constant learning and
continuous innovation. Technologies and markets change rapidly and need
organizations - as well as individuals - that are able to adapt, learn
and develop. Culture and leisure are becoming major economic sectors
in their own right. Highly educated people try to fill their lives with
rich, intense, and meaningful experiences - both at work and in their
This is a challenge to public libraries. Libraries are funded by the
government, national or local. They depend, in the long run, on the
willing support of the electorate. Their role in industrial society
was well defined and widely accepted. Politicians and voters understood
the value of library services and were willing to pay for them. But
their role in knowledge societies looks less evident. The traditional
arguments have lost much of their force. Politicians often seem less
committed: their hearts are not engaged. If voters follow their lead,
public libraries will loose their broad political support. In several
European countries, we believe, this is starting to happen.
In Norway, we see this most clearly in the way official statistics have
become a pruning tool. Before nobody outside the library world showed
much interest in library statistics. But now the Central Bureau of Statistics
has introduced a sophisticated system for collecting and comparing municipal
statistics (KOSTRA). In several municipalities a single statistical
indicator - the number of loans per staff year (FTE = full-time equivalents)
- have recently been used against libraries that have "too much
In the past, we believe, official library statistics have been less
than fully utilized. - Today, library institutions spend too much
effort on repetitive data collection and too little on data analysis.
Libraries provide many different services to many different users. But
official statistics only reflect certain aspects of library use. At
the national level, we need a better understanding of the services that
libraries provide - or could provide - in knowledge oriented, multicultural
and highly complex societies. Within libraries we need better tools
for planning and managing services. (Høivik, 2003).
But decision-making based on one indicator - and a problematic indicator
at that - is not the answer. In this paper we argue for a broader use
of official library statistics in library management and strategic planning.
We propose a set of statistical variables that cover the range of services
libraries are likely to provide in knowledge based societies.
Previous and current work in the field of library statistics will, ofg
course, be fully recognized and taken into account. We develop a number
of statistical indicators from these variables - mostly in the form
of simple ratios. And we show how such indicators can be used for effective
The paper will be empirical as well as methodological. We will illustrate
our argument with two small comparative studies using available statistical
data. In the first we compare the public library systems in several
European countries with data from LibEcon.
In the second we compare selected public libraries in Norway with data
from KOSTRA and some additional sources.
The paper builds on - and develops - ideas and empirical research presented
1. Høivik, Tord (2003). Why do you ask? Reference statistics
for library planning, Performance measurement and metrics,
vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 28-37. Article = first half of web
2. - (2004). Wide
enough for libraries? The library function in a web-based world.
Paper for the conference Professional Information on the Internet,
Kraków, Poland 31st May - 1st June 2004. Forthcoming in a book
3. - (2004). Når
statistikk blir politikk. Om KOSTRA og norsk bibliotekstatistikk
[When statistics turns into politics: on KOSTRA and Norwegian library
statistics]. Bok og bibliotek, nr. 3.
4. - Statistikk og styring i norske folkebibliotek [Statistics and
management in Norwegian public libraries]. Pre-print forthcoming,
Measuring and Mapping the invisible
Alternative procedures to understand users’ approach to Information
in a University Library
Head of the Public services Department
Paris 8 University Library, Saint-Denis, France
13 000 sq. meters, 1 500 seats, 86 employees (including 47 qualified
librarians), 360 000 books (half of them in open access), over 1 000
periodicals, 100 computers giving access to a broad selection of electronic
resources and journals, the University Library of Saint-Denis opens
60 hours and 6 days a week : it offers to its public a first-class equipment
and some of the best collections and services a French university library
can provide in the fields of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences. The
construction of this luxurious building by famous French architect Pierre
Riboulet in 1998 represents a major investment and a strong political
and social commitment for the French Government and its local partners
considering the environment and the population of the Saint-Denis University
: 35% of the 27 000 students come from foreign countries (mostly North
Africa, South America, Asia and Eastern Europe); and a large part of
the student population is usually considered to have fewer chances than
others to achieve academic or professional success due to their educational,
social and cultural background. Besides, access to the Library is granted
to any person aged over 18, which means that a significant part of its
visitors are adults and young adults from the suburban neighbourhood,
a vast residential lower-class no-man’s land with no public equipment
matching the size nor the networking opportunities offered by the University.
The Saint-Denis University Library cannot complain about the usual
problems which affect French libraries : no budget or staff cuts, no
opening hours “wars”, no space saturation or degradation.
6 years after its spectacular opening, the library is, of course, proud
of its success : in 2003, over 60 % of the students registered for the
library and borrowed at least one book ; everyday, between 3 500 and
6 000 people come to the library to borrow, browse, copy or print documents
and use its various services. Those figures are much higher than the
However, time has come to question the actual impact of the library
on its public and to look for new ways to improve the quality of its
services : quantitative analysis and statistics are part of the library
management culture and already provide useful data for the monthly and
annual reports, but they have shown their limits. In spite of the reassuring
figures regarding access, loans or consultation, it is felt by many
that the gap between the librarians’ representation of the library
functions and its everyday use by the public has been increasingly widening.
When taking time to discuss with students, or observing what they do,
we came to realise that the library wasn’t this beautiful and
modern temple devoted to academic knowledge and mutual understanding.
It is of course, like any library, a place of
social or individual appropriation ; but it is also a place of misunderstanding
and ignorance, where (too) many people get lost and waste their time
looking for something they don’t find. Beside and beyond its usual
documentary and management duties, the executive staff of the library
has therefore accepted to contribute to the long-term development of
the library services by involving itself in the testing of new ways
and techniques to observe the public and learn from their own perceptions
and practises. The goal : escaping narrow visions of what a library
should be, adjusting its services to the local needs while respecting
the University’s official missions, and, overall, getting closer
This paper aims at describing the most recent and promising procedures
which have been tested in Saint-Denis to measure qualitative use of
the library by its patrons. Through a combination of various survey
protocols, we have been trying to understand :
· why the people come to the library, and what they’re
· where they actually go, which services they use, and what
they find in the library;
· how their representation of knowledge and information confronts
and challenges the spatial and intellectual organisation of the library
space, catalogue and classification system.
This paper also intends to show how such procedures can affect decision-making
and, more broadly, library management regarding the following service-oriented
· students’ education in the field of information and
· ways of organising communications, mediation and assistance
with library patrons,
· changes in space organisation, signals and signboards;
· the implementation of a new information system.
In the course of academic year 2004-2005, several experiments are being
run in the library :
· measuring the number and types of questions being asked
to librarians over periods of one week
· a specific survey about to the use of the library catalogue,
· a collaborative diary written by a team of five “flying
librarians” who don’t wait for the public behind a desk
but rather follow him through the shelves and the screens to test
new forms of mediation;
· a geographical survey of the patrons’ ways through
the library : over a period of one week, students from the Geography
Dept. will be tracking and reporting the path of a sample of users
; their data should be exploited in a dynamic geographical information
Most of these experiments are being run in collaboration with an interdisciplinary
team of scholars from the University of Paris 8 whose expertise covers
a wide range of disciplines : geography, information technology, psychology,
ergonomics. This partnership is, of course, a way to cross-examine qualitative
results from different academic perspectives and to open up the usual
“librarian vision” of the library to broader approaches.
From a political perspective, it is also an opportunity to change the
status of the library inside the University from a mere technical service
of documentation to a potential field of research worth of interest
for the local scientific community.
Depending on the forthcoming results of the various surveys engaged
and on possible suggestions from the IFLA evaluation committee, the
oral presentation of this paper will focus on one or two specific projects
and present both the practical and theoretical aspects of these procedures
both from a management and a librarian perspective.
Marketing to Diverse Populations
Lexington Public Library
This paper focuses on the methods and strategies used to bring library
service to a diverse community of 40% Hispanic, 25-30% African American,
and 35-40% Caucasian. It includes a statistical segment demonstrating
the phenomenal growth in patron usage over a nine-month period, focusing
on reference transactions, computer minutes used, in-house usage, and
The new Village Branch of the Lexington Public Library is a 7,000 square
foot renovated storefront space. Lexington, Kentucky, known as the Horse
Capital of the World, had a fairly homogenous population until the early
1990’s when thousands of people from Central America started to
immigrate to Lexington to work on the horse farms. Most of these immigrants
had only a 3rd grade education and no English language skills. They
were not familiar with the concept of a free, public library and were
wary of Government-sponsored agencies.
The challenge for the Lexington Public Library was to provide targeted,
cost-effective Library service, and to develop a marketing plan to promote
the new branch Library to the diverse neighborhood population.
A PowerPoint presentation will include photos that demonstrate many
of the different marketing techniques used. The Village Branch invites
and draws people in based on several significant factors: strategic
location in a heavily used shopping center in one of the city’s
largely Hispanic areas; unusual use of color in the building’s
interior design; the use of face-out, low shelving, high-impact furniture
and design elements; and the high visibility due not only to its location
but also to the clear glass front of the branch.
EVALUATING LIBRARY SERVICES
– BEST PRACTICE INITIATIVES IN AUSTRALIAN UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES
La Trobe University, Bendigo
Australian university libraries have a long history and culture of
performance measurement, benchmarking, quality improvement and application
of best practice initiatives in library and information services.
From a national perspective, the Council of Australian University Librarians
(CAUL), which comprises the university librarians/library directors
of Australia’s 40 universities, encourages and co-ordinates the
development of best practice strategies for enhancing the quality of
university library services. To date, these have included:
the provision of statistical information which enables institutional
comparison of key indicators;
the development of a range of performance indicator kits;
sponsoring the development of a national library customer survey instrument;
the development of best practice guides in a number of areas
In recent years the systematic approach to evaluation, benchmarking
and improvement has become an integral part of the Australian higher
education framework as a whole. In 2000 the Australian government, which
has overall responsibility for higher education in Australia, introduced
a quality audit scheme and established the Australian Universities Quality
Agency (AUQA). AUQA will audit each self accrediting higher education
institution in Australia every five years. The AUQA audits focus on
the goals and objectives of institutions, and investigate the processes
universities have in place to achieve these goals and objectives, including
the measuring, monitoring and improvement frameworks. The audits also
include scrutiny of the institutions’ libraries – how they
contribute to institutional objectives and the quality assurance mechanisms
in place to achieve this.
This paper provides an overview of the key evaluation and measurement
activities currently being developed and utilised by university libraries
in Australia, and the higher education context which is catalysing these
activities. Particular reference is paid to those measures developed
by CAUL, and the national benchmarking initiatives which are being undertaken.
The paper also presents, as a case study, the preparation that one
university library – La Trobe University Library – undertook
for the AUQA quality audit, which was conducted in September 2004. This
included the development of a checklist used to carry out an organizational
self review and identify areas for improvement. The checklist also records
the “whole of library” performance measurement and evaluation
activities which are used by the library to measure and monitor performance
at the strategic level.
Using Geographic and Library
Use Data for Improved Strategic Planning and Decision-making
Dr. Christie Koontz
Florida State University
Awareness of and access to geographic data is complex and new to many
professions, including librarianship. Geographic data is best described
as information such as the geographic boundaries of the neighborhood
the library serves, characteristics of the people who live there (age,
language spoken, level of income and education), and how far library
users and potential library users live from the library. Library research
indicates all these factors which are geographic in nature, affect library
Public agencies such as school, police and fire departments access geographic
data with the support of local government through local planning offices
or in-house expertise. Local funders consider these agencies critical
to all citizens, and support comes readily. By contrast, sometimes the
perception of the public library as a customer-selected agency rather
than one that addresses the needs of all citizens often casts the library
in a not-so-critical role. Yet the public library’s mission remains
centered on equitable information provision to all people in a community,
and has continued for the past century to be an exemplary public provider.
With lack of local support and without training in the use of geographic
data, librarians are often forced to be less than equal players on community
planning teams. This deficiency can limit the library’s success
in competing with other public agencies for funds in the face of reductions
of school capacities or fire and police protection, particularly when
libraries face cutbacks, staff reduction or closure.
This paper introduces: 1) geographic data relevant to strategic decision
making in public libraries (although other types of libraries may also
benefit); and 2) new technologies that facilitate use of geographic
data such as GIS (geographic information system software) and the US
Public Library Geographic Database, www.geolib.org/PLGDB.cfm
To Go Global or To Remain Local:
Analyzing the types of virtual reference queries posted to a collaborative
24/7 service and their answer qualities
University of South Florida, School of Library & Information Science
A frequently expressed concern about virtual reference collaborations
is how effective it would be for the staff at one library to answer
questions for another, if many queries tend to be “local.”
Similarly, by not getting instant answers, library patrons whose queries
are referred back to their local library would easily be confused and
frustrated. Unless they understand the boundaries between library systems
in a collaborative virtual service, the patrons would be left with a
question, “what am I supposed to ask to this service?” These
problems question cost-effective deployment of resources of a local
library and effective customer services.
If a local library observed that a high proportion of virtual reference
queries can be answered only by its locally restricted resources and
services, the library should reconsider its joining in a nationwide
consortium. Conversely, if the high proportion of queries relates to
factual and subject searches and if those queries are answered effectively
by the staff of participating libraries, the library would support inter-institutional
collaborations. Unfortunately, the current literature does not adequately
inform what types of queries are generally asked by the patrons of public
libraries that are participating in consortia. Furthermore, while the
previous literature generally reports high patron satisfaction to the
answers they received, few have reported the types of queries that can
be most effectively answered in the collaborated virtual reference service.
Filling in these knowledge gaps will bring direct benefits to public
libraries that wish to make informed decisions on inter-institutional
collaborations for their virtual reference services and subsequent staffing
and training issues. Thus, the present study investigates the typology
of queries posed by public library patrons to a collaborative virtual
reference service and reference effectiveness of those queries.
The proposed study employs both content analysis of the transcripts
of virtual reference transactions and a self-administered user survey
that is submitted immediately after each transaction. Both data are
obtained from an electronic archive of a U.S. public library system
that has participated in a nationwide collaborative service. The study
analyzes 422 reference transactions that have occurred between January
and June, 2004.
The two major research variables of the current study are types of queries
and reference success. First, “types of queries” is measured
via content analysis of reference transaction transcripts. Second, “reference
success” is assessed in terms of answer completeness and user
perception of reference success. Answer completeness is measured via
content analysis of transcripts. User perception of reference success
is measured by a composite variable based on patrons’ responses
to four survey questionnaire items: (1) satisfaction with the answer
obtained; (2) user perception of the staff quality; (3) willingness
to return to the service, and (4) positiveness of service experience.
A series of descriptive and inferential statistical tests are to be
conducted to identify compositions of different query types and the
association between query types and reference success.
Implications of the Study
The findings of the present study will contribute to the reference practice
and research by providing managerial and methodological implications.
From the managerial perspective, by informing the typology of reference
queries and the reference success of each query type, this study will
assist a local library’s decision making on whether the library
should join the global consortium or maintain the service at a local
level. From the methodological perspective, by demonstrating a method
to utilize automatically collected virtual reference transaction transcripts
and survey data, the current study can serve as an example of data collection
and analysis that could be easily adopted by local librarians who want
to diagnose and correct problems with their systems and services.
ESTADÍSTICAS PARA PLANIFICAR:
DESARROLLO ESTADÍSTICO EN UN SISTEMA REGIONAL DE BIBLIOTECAS
PÚBLICAS (COMUNIDAD VALENCIANA – ESPAÑA)
Ignacio Latorre Zacarés
Jefe de Sección de Bibliotecas de la Dirección General
del Libro y Bibliotecas de la Generalitat Valenciana (Comunidad Valenciana
Conselleria de Cultura, Educación y Deporte.
Dirección General del Libro y Bibliotecas.
Servicio del Libro
Milagros Ortells Montón
Técnica de Bibliotecas de la Dirección General del Libro
y Bibliotecas de la Generalitat Valenciana (Comunidad Valenciana –
Dirección General del Libro y Bibliotecas.
Servicio del Libro
Desde el año 2000, el organismo coordinador de política
bibliotecaria en la Comunidad Valenciana (España) inició
un proceso de mejora del sistema estadístico del Sistema Bibliotecario
Valenciano que ha permitido poseer un mejor conocimiento del estado
actual de la red bibliotecaria regional y que actúa como herramienta
para la toma de decisiones de política bibliotecaria. La propuesta
de comunicación analiza los progresos realizados en la gestión
estadística y sus aplicaciones prácticas en política
bibliotecaria y en investigación sobre bibliotecas públicas.
Fases de desarrollo del sistema estadístico:
- Creación de una potente base de datos (XABIB) que centraliza
todos los parámetros estadísticos del Sistema Bibliotecario
- Actualización y verificación de todo el directorio
de bibliotecas valencianas.
- Actualización de los cuestionarios estadísticos de
la serie histórica de estadísticas mensuales de uso
de la biblioteca.
- Creación de un nuevo cuestionario estadístico anual
que permite controlar todos los parámetros más importantes
a nivel bibliotecario: instalaciones, servicios, personal, gastos,
horarios, nivel de automatización, colección, visitantes,
- Integración de información en el sistema español
estadístico de bibliotecas públicas.
- Mejora del sistema de envío de estadísticas: creación
de una aplicación para el envío e introducción
de estadísticas mensuales por Internet desde las bibliotecas
públicas y envío por correo electrónico de estadísticas
- Creación de un programa especial de extracción de
información estadística de uso interno y una aplicación
web que permite la consulta abierta, versátil y en línea
de los datos principales del Sistema Bibliotecario Valenciano.
- Proceso de filtro, verificación y mejora de consistencia
de los datos.
- Creación de una herramienta web que permite la consulta en
línea de una amplia gama de datos estadísticos con la
posibilidad de realizar consultas históricas, geográficamente
delimitadas y con información gráfica.
- Elaboración de informes dirigidos a los cargos políticos
para facilitar el proceso de toma de decisiones.
- Elaboración de artículos y comunicaciones sobre el
Sistema Bibliotecario Valenciano a partir de la información
- Aplicación práctica de políticas bibliotecarias
a partir de los resultados estadísticos.
STATISTICS TO PLAN: STATISTICAL DEVELOPMENT
IN A REGIONAL SYSTEM OF PUBLIC LIBRARIES (VALENCIAN COMMUNITY - SPAIN)
Since 2000, the coordinating agency of library policies in the Valencian
Community (Spain) started a process of improvement in the statistical
system of the Valencian Library System that has allowed a better knowledge
of the present condition of the regional library net and that acts as
a tool for the taking of decisions in library policies. The paper analyses
the improvements brought about in the statistical management and its
practical applications in library policies and in research on public
Stages in the development of the statistical system:
- Creation of a powerful database (XABIB) that centralizes all the
statistical parameters of the Valencian Library System.
- Updating and revision of the whole directory of Valencian libraries.
- Updating of the statistical questionaries of the historical series
of library monthly use statistics.
- Elaboration of a new yearly statistical questionary that allows
to control all the most important parameters in the library field:
facilities, services, staff, expenses, timetable, automatization level,
collection, visitors, library loans, etc…
- Integration of information in the Spanish statistical system of
- Improvement in the statistics dispatch: creation of a computer application
to send and introduce in the Internet monthly statistics from the
public libraries as well as to dispatch yearly statistics via e-mail.
- Creation of a specific computer program to obtain statistical information
of internal use and a web application that allows an on-line access
to the Valencian Library System main data.
- Filtering, verification and improvement in the data consistency.
- Creation of a web tool that permits an on-line search of a wide
range of statistical data with the possibility of carrying out historical
searches, geographically delimited and with graphic information.
- Elaboration of reports addressed to the politically-appointed officials
in order to facilitate their taking of decisions.
- Elaboration of articles and papers on the Valencian Library System
taking as reference statistical data.
Practical applications in library policies of statistics dates.
La bibliothèque municipale
face aux fluctuations financières : l’impensé managérial
dans les bibliothèques françaises des villes moyennes
Docteur en Sciences de l'information et de la Communication
Université Lumière Lyon 2
Membre associé au laboratoire de recherche Documents et Science
de l’Information (DOCSI)
Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Sciences de l'Information
et des Bibliothèques
Le secteur culturel est connu pour sa fragilité économique.
Ainsi les bibliothèques, souvent les premières sacrifiées
au nom de la contrainte budgétaire, rencontrent régulièrement
des problèmes financiers avec lesquels elles doivent composer.
Elles sont alors amenées à introduire des changements,
à adopter de nouvelles approches et méthodes de gestion.
Nombreux sont les choix et les modes de gestion alternatifs qui se présentent
aux décideurs. Ils peuvent opérer un repli et tenter de
faire face aux changements budgétaires par des remaniements internes.
Ils peuvent décider de tarifer les services pour assurer des
rentrées financières. Ils peuvent aussi préférer
se tourner vers l’extérieur : pour rechercher des aides,
de nature financière ou autre; pour mettre en commun certains
services et ressources avec d’autres organisations et donc pour
coopérer ; ou encore pour confier en sous-traitance certaines
tâches à une entité indépendante publique
Notre enquête sur les bibliothèques françaises des
villes moyennes montre que l’ensemble de ces choix gestionnaires
est mis en œuvre. Les raisons sont multiples et varient d’une
bibliothèque à une autre. Mais les décisions reposent
rarement sur un raisonnement gestionnaire. Les outils et les démarches
de management restent encore des concepts ambigus pour les professionnels.
Pour nombre d’entre eux, il subsiste une inadéquation entre
la culture et l’économie. Dès lors la façon
de gérer leur établissement relève plus de l’intuition,
du parti-pris, que d’une véritable rationalisation économique.
Sur la base de ce constat, ce travail se conclut sur la proposition
de construction d’un outil d’aide à la décision
qui permettrait aux décideurs de juger de l’opportunité
réelle des choix qui s’offrent à eux dans le domaine
de la gestion des bibliothèques.
The cultural sector is known for its economic fragility. Thus, being
the first sacrificed because of the budgetary constraint, the libraries
are regularly face financial problems with which they must adapt. Libraries
have therefore to introduce changes, to adopt new approaches and methods
Decision makers have many alternative choices and methods of management.
They can either drawback and try to face the budgetary changes by internal
rehandlings or they can decide to tariff the services to ensure of the
financial re-entries. They can also prefer to seek financial and other
kinds of assistance from outside ; to share certain services and resources
with other organisations and thus to cooperate ; or to entrust in subcontracting
certain tasks to a public or private independent entity.
Our investigation into the French libraries of the average cities (
of 20 000 to 100 000 inhabitants ) shows that all of these administrative
choices are implemented. The reasons are multiple and vary from one
library to another. But the decisions seldom depend on managerial reasoning.
Managerial tools and actions still remain ambiguous concepts for the
professionals. For a number of them, there remains an inadequacy between
culture and economy. Consequently, the way of managing their establishment
relies more on intuition, bias, than on a true economic rationalisation.
On the basis of this report, this work concludes on the proposal of
the construction of a decision-making aid tool which would allow the
decision makers to consider the real opportunity of the choices they
have in the field of library management.
Customer Value Research
Director of Libraries and Knowledge Resources
Information Co-ordinator, IFLA Universities and Research Libraries Section
and Convenor, IFLA Quality Issues in Libraries Discussion Group
Nottingham Trent University
Libraries & Knowledge Resources
The Boots Library
This research, based on focus groups with key customer segments, seeks
what aspects of the library service cause irritation;
what services are most valued by the customer segment - the value propositions;
and a rating of current performance against those value propositions
It is much more useful than 'Customer Satisfaction' methodologies for
evaluating performance. I would describe the methodology that is used,
which is provided by Enzyme International, a facilitation company/consultants.
The process is very effective for a number of reasons:
the customers are not asked to comment on a given list of services;
they create their own hierarchy of value (and irritation) so it is valid
from the customer perspective
information is gained on the priority or importance of the value propositions,
so as to aid decision making - reduce the irritations and maximise value
a gap analysis is gained on relative importance and current performance
library staff are observers in the focus group sessions and are involved
in anticipating how they believe the customers are going to rank the
value propositions - so a gap analysis is generated on perceptions between
library staff and the customers
task groups from across the library then work with the data from the
consolidated focus groups to work out what needs to be done to improve
value and reduce irritation, so it is an effective 'cultural change'
As I have undertaken similar customer value research in an academic
library in Australia, I will be able to compare the hierarchy of values
(and irritants) between the UK and the Australian university experiences.
Measuring the performance of
the University of Porto Libraries: an action model
Luiza Baptista Melo
Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto
Departamento de Matemática,
This paper will describe an action model to measure the performance
of the 25 libraries of the University of Porto.
The proposal model is a mix example that is based in the CAF –
Common Assessment Framework (European Union 2003), Balanced Scorecard
(KAPLAN, NORTON 1992) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (SAATY 1990). The
recommend performance indicators are
based in the ISO 11620:1998:2003 and ISO 2789:2003.
The CAF – Common Assessment Framework is a model based in the
EFQM Excellence Model. CAF represents nine fundamental concepts to assess
an organization’s progress
towards excellence. The nine concepts are the following: leadership,
people, strategy and planning, human resources management, partnerships
and resources, processes and change
management, people results, customer results, society results and key
The Balanced Scorecard is a management technique designed to provide
a view of an organization from four perspectives: user, internal processes,
financial and innovation and
learning. The relative weights for each performance measure are calculated
by use of Analytic Hierarchy Process, AHP. The AHP can compute the weights
of performance measures on the basis of two steps:
1) Comparing (pairwise) the major perspectives of the proposal model;
2) Comparing (pairwise) the subperformance measures under each major
The main purpose of this model is to improve the performance in each
academic library and to develop benchmarking techniques.
EUROPEAN UNION. European Institute of Public Administration –
CAF-Common Assessment Framework [on-line]. Maasthricht: EIPA. [Consult.
28 Fev. 2004]. URL http://www.eipa.nl
KAPLAN, R. S.; NORTON, D. P. – The balanced scorecard –
measures that drive performance”. Harvard Business Review, January
February 1992, pp. 71-79.
SAATY, Thomas L. – Decision making for leaders: the analytic hierarchy
process for decisions in a complex world. Pittsburgh: University of
Comparaison entre un audit de
culture, un audit marketing et un audit de structure, dans le cadre
Marielle de Miribel
Différents outils d’analyse, empruntés au monde
privé, permettent d’appréhender la complexité
des bibliothèques et de comprendre quels en sont les enjeux stratégiques.
Je me propose de présenter brièvement ces trois outils
de diagnostic, de montrer quel en est leur intérêt et en
quoi ils se complètent mutuellement.
1. L’audit marketing (SWOT)
C’est un état des lieux subjectif, à l’instant
T. Il étudie de façon dynamique :
D’une part les enjeux externes à la structure (opportunités/
menaces) : c’est une carte de l’environnement, observé
du point de vue de la structure considérée.
Et d’autre part, les ressources internes (forces / faiblesses)
également du point de vue de la structure considérée,
à l’instant T.
Ces deux constats permettent de dresser les écarts éventuels
entre les objectifs espérés et réalistes.
2. L’audit de culture
Dans un autre registre, celui du patrimoine, l’audit de culture
est un inventaire des 5 points clé qui permettent à une
structure de définir les bases de son capital d’image.
(les fondateurs, l’histoire, le métier, les valeurs et
les signes et symboles). Il permet de nommer, faire exister, consolider
et fructifier le capital d’image qui sous-tend toutes les actions
de communication externe et interne à al structure.
3. L’audit de structure
Il étudie la complexité de l’organisation
considérée, à partir de l’environnement,
pour en déterminer les objectifs stratégiques, condition
de survie de la structure. De là, tel un fil rouge, il balaie
les différentes zones d’exploration (autorité du
groupe avec leadership et canon, membres du groupe et activité
du groupe) pour permettre de se poser 12 questions concernant les points
clés déterminant la bonne santé générale
de la structure.
Après cette présentation théorique, on pourrait
prévoir un atelier en 3 groupes, où les participants dresseraient
le profil d’une bibliothèque témoin, état
des lieux suivi d’une mise en commun et de commentaires en terme
Developing a culture of evidence
based practice within the library and information profession: the impact
of library science education.
A teaching and learning model
from the Queensland University of Technology
Faculty of Information Technology
Queensland University of Technology
Brisbane, QLD, Australia
Faculty of Information Technology
Queensland University of Technology
Brisbane, QLD, Australia
Evidence Based Practice (EBP) has recently emerged as a topic
of discussion amongst professionals within the library and information
industry. Simply stated, EBP is the process of using formal research
skills and methods to assist in decision making and establishing best
practice. The emerging interest in the EBP within the library context
serves to remind the library profession that sound research skills and
methods are essential if the library industry is to remain current and
relevant in a rapidly changing environment. The future of EBP within
the library context relies upon effective cooperation between industry
professionals, library science educators and professional associations.
This paper will consider the role of library science education in ensuring
the future of EBP within librarianship. Aware of its role to industry
as a supplier of employees to the marketplace, the Queensland University
of Technology (QUT) is continually reviewing its library science curriculum
to more readily embrace the needs of current industry practice. This
paper will discuss the teaching and learning model that is being at
the Queensland University of Technology to foster student awareness
and understanding of EBP and its practical role in the library and information
In 2005 QUT will introduce for the first time a Master of Information
Management (MIM). Based upon the Graduate Diploma in Library and Information
Studies previously offered, enrolled students will be required to complete
ten core unit and two electives. Guided by the growing industry demand
EBP will be a vital part of the MIM curriculum. Over the one and a half
year course students will be introduced via the core units to the fundamentals
of research in practice through industry speakers, problem based activities,
case studies, group discussion and self reflection. The core unit ITN276
introduces students to the broad area of information services and is
used as the primary vehicle in the MIM through which students can develop
their understanding and experience in using research methods. Students
are required to develop their understanding of current industry practice
by undertaking a critical evaluation of an existing information service.
By becoming directly involved in performance measurement through the
collection and analysis of user-derived data, the students gain insights
into the value of research techniques and strategies in different library
contexts. The success of the learning in the unit depends on the collaborative
involvement of industry professionals in the academic program, enabling
the effective transfer of learning between students, academics and practitioners.
The paper examines the experiences of both the teaching staff and the
students in practicing EBP within an industry context and considers
the contribution the course makes in developing an EBP culture within
the Australian library and information profession.
A new model for public library
and information services evaluation: an integrated approach - SIADAP+B
Leonor Gaspar Pinto
Member of the Executive Board
INCITE, the Portuguese Association for Information Management
Member of the Executive Board
INCITE, the Portuguese Association for Information Management
The aim of this paper is to present the model developed specifically
for the evaluation of Portuguese public library and information services
as a result of a research project carried out by INCITE, The Portuguese
Association for Information Management (2004). The model is based on
four action-oriented pillars:
· Common Assessment Framework (CAF) – the self-evaluation framework
recommended for European Public Administration Services;
· Balanced Scorecard – Kaplan and Norton’s strategical
tool for organizational management and performance improvement;
· Library standards on performance measures and indicators
(ISO 2789, ISO 11620 and ISO/TR 20983);
· The Portuguese system for evaluating Public Administration
organizational and individual performance – Sistema Integrado
de Avaliação de Desempenho da Administração
Pública – SIADAP.
The balanced integration of all these components focused on a library
perspective is an innovative tool, which can push librarians towards
a new social impact, since it is the first professional group to have
a self-evaluation performance tailored-made tool.
The model is described and the integration links are mapped in detail.
The dissemination of SIADAP+B among the library and information community,
together with a (inter)national growing tendency towards quality assessment
led to several marketing initiatives within libraries. These initiatives
and projects carried out by INCITE or, individually, by INCITE members
Finally, after reflecting on the difficulties of changing the traditional
performance evaluation behaviour of librarians, the advantages of using
an integrated model for performance evaluation are emphasized, especially
in terms of INCITE’s marketing policy.
THE PUBLIC LIBRARY’S ATTRACTIVENESS
: A QUANTITATIVE STUDY
IUT Nancy-Charlemagne, Université Nancy2
URSIDOC/ DOCSI, ENSSIB/ Lyon1
How can we understand that people frequent public libraries or not
? I have tried to show for many years that the frequentation of libraries
depends not only on external factors like reading practices, watching
television, etc. On the contrary, I believe that it depends on internal
factors : the way the libraries offer their services to users partly
determines the number and the type of users who come there. But how
can we know what the determining factors are ? A first solution consists
in doing a study of the frequentation of a library before and after
a service change. That’s a good method because the observation
of users is done in the same context (neighborhood, staff, etc.). On
the other hand, the results come from specific cases and we can’t
be sure that they are valuable in all the cases.
Faced with such limits, a second solution is possible. We can observe
a large number of libraries and compare them according to different
criteria. In France, the Direction du livre et de la lecture du Ministère
de la culture (the section of the ministry of Culture that deals with
libraries) gathers data from each public library every year. So we have
at our disposal information about budget, staff, collections, premises,
users and loans. Until now, these data have been analyzed in a simple
way : for example we know what the average collection of CDs in the
libraries is. Using the same data, I would like to cross the information
about the libraries with information about the users. More precisely,
does the rate between the number of users with a library card and the
number of inhabitants of the city depend on the library’s characteristics
? For example : is the rate higher in the libraries with large opening
hours ? Do the libraries with a large part of professional staff receive
more users than libraries with fewer professionals ?
My paper tries to answer such questions. I would like to find
some results in order to help library managers define better practices.
Moreover, it would be interesting to compare results from France with
results from other countries.
L’ATTRACTIVITE DES BIBLIOTHEQUES PUBLIQUES
UNE ENQUETE QUANTITATIVE
Comment comprendre la fréquentation (ou non fréquentation)
des bibliothèques ? Depuis plusieurs années , nous défendons
l’idée selon laquelle ce ne sont pas seulement des éléments
extérieurs à la bibliothèque (le rapport à
la lecture, l’air du temps, la télévision, etc.)
qui se révèlent déterminants. Nous soutenons au
contraire l’idée de « déterminants internes
» : la manière dont les bibliothèques mettent en
forme leurs services décide partiellement de la fréquentation
dont elles font l’objet. Mais comment parvenir à identifier
les éléments agissant de l’offre ? Une première
façon consiste à procéder de façon monographique
en comparant la fréquentation d’une même bibliothèque
avant et après une modification de ses services. Cette méthode
offre l’avantage de maintenir stables nombre d’éléments
de la situation (population desservie, personnel, etc.).En revanche,
comme il s’agit de cas singuliers, on ne peut pas être sûr
de la validité générale des résultats auxquels
C’est face à ses limites que nous avons développé
une deuxième méthode. Il s’agit d’exploiter
les données recueillies sur presque toutes les bibliothèques
publiques de France (n = 2700 à 3000). La Direction du livre
et de la lecture du Ministère de la culture recueille tous les
ans des informations auprès de chaque bibliothèque sur
le budget, le personnel, les collections, les acquisitions, les locaux,
le public et les prêts. Jusqu’à présent, ces
données sont exploitées de façon simple : nous
disposons des moyennes et de la distribution des réponses selon
la taille de la commune dans laquelle est implantée la bibliothèque.
En exploitant les mêmes données, nous croisons statistiquement
les informations sur la bibliothèque avec celles sur la fréquentation.
Les bibliothèques disposant du budget d’acquisitions par
habitant le plus élevé sont-elles les plus fréquentées
? Les bibliothèques ayant un personnel spécifique attirent-elles
davantage de public ?
Pour répondre à ces questions, il faut définir
un indicateur stable de fréquentation. Dans cet objectif, nous
prenons comme indicateur le rapport entre le nombre d’inscrits
de la commune et le nombre d’habitants de la commune. De cette
façon, on mesure bien l’attractivité de la bibliothèque
sur la population qu’elle dessert. Notre communication sera consacrée
à la présentation de notre démarche et à
la présentation de quelques résultats.
Libraries Building Communities:
the vital contribution of Victoria’s public libraries –
A report on a major research project of the Library Board of Victoria
and the Victorian public library network
Bachelor of Arts (Hons)
Graduate Diploma of Librarianship,
Graduate Diploma of Business in the Field of Managament,
Employing organization: State Library of Victoria
Libraries Building Communities is a research project that evaluates
the contribution of public libraries to community strengthening in the
Australian State of Victoria and provides recommendations that will
help drive the strategic direction of the State’s public library
services for the next several years. Victoria has a population of approximately
5 million people. It has 43 public library services and a network of
238 branch libraries and 30 mobile libraries.
Although developed with an awareness of other research that has been
conducted in this area globally, the Libraries Building Communities
project is groundbreaking in its scale and complexity.
The proposed Paper will present an overview of Libraries Building
Communities. It will cover the background and aims of the project,
methodology, key findings and recommendations, and lessons learnt during
the three-year process of carrying out the project, from the original
research proposal in April 2002 to publication of the research reports
in March 2005.
The Paper will clearly contribute to the Satellite Meeting’s
discussion around research methods, data collection and analysis, performance
measurement and best practice in relation to public library services.
The following is a more detailed synopsis of the Libraries Building
The major challenge for public libraries and advocates of better
libraries for all … is just how to convey to decision makers the
breadth, depth and potential impact on the whole community of the modern
public library. It is a rare challenge because no other agency in society
has the breadth of role, the user range and diversity, and the potential
impact. (Alan Bundy, 2003)
The Libraries Building Communities research is an essential
resource for all those who advocate to decision makers for the support
of better public library services. Libraries Building Communities
is a landmark project. It is a comprehensive study of the contributions
that public libraries in the State of Victoria make to their communities.
It includes all 43 Victorian public library services, and draws on the
views and ideas of nearly 10,000 people through a process of rigorous
research by an independent company.
The aims of the Libraries Building Communities research are:
to increase community awareness of the range of public library services,
particularly for ‘disadvantaged’ groups such as ethnic minorities,
and those living in remote areas; and show government at all levels
how public libraries can help achieve their policy goals. For public
library staff the project:
presents clear new data on the contribution libraries make to their
provides case studies that show how Victorian public libraries lead
identifies groups that are not currently well served by their libraries,
and offer solutions;
builds awareness of the critical social capital and community building
role of public libraries.
Information was gathered from: 8,600 online surveys;
400 telephone interviews with library users and non-users; 35 in depth
face-to-face interviews with key influencers in the community; and 24
focus groups with library users, non-users and staff. Never before in
Australia has research of this scale and complexity been undertaken
into the community building role of public libraries.
The Libraries Building Communities
findings are presented in a series of reports:
Report 1 – Setting the Scene: This report introduces
the key concepts around community building and social capital and gives
a summary of the Victorian government’s policy agenda on community.
It describes the ways in which public libraries contribute to community
building and presents an overview of the public library network in Victoria.
There is a review of similar national and international studies measuring
the value of public libraries, and a detailed description of the objectives
and methodology of the project.
Report 2 – Logging the Benefits: Drawing on
the information gathered from the telephone survey, focus groups and
face-to-face interviews this report presents community views on how
public libraries add value to the community; where greater value could
be added; and, what they see as the future of public libraries. It illustrates
the many ways in which public libraries assist government at all levels
in achieving their goals in many areas including education, lifelong
learning, health, e-government and community strengthening.
Report 3 – Bridging the Gaps: Data from the
online survey and the Australian Bureau of Statistics is used to present
in this report an assessment of segments of the population that use
public libraries and those that appear to be less well-serviced, with
particular reference to disabled people, ethnic minorities, those on
low incomes and those living in remote areas. The report identifies
the factors that act as barriers to use and suggests strategies for
Report 4 – Showcasing the Best: Over thirty
examples of innovative programs and services in Victorian public libraries
are presented in this report to illustrate the many ways in which public
libraries help to strengthen their communities. Each case study includes
the key lessons, challenges and benefits of the initiative. Emphasis
is given to partnership initiatives ranging from homework clubs and
telecentres to housebound services and vocational guidance programs.
Executive Summary: A succinct bringing together of
the key findings from all of the reports that can be used as a stand
alone document for distribution to a wide range of stakeholders including
politicians and their advisors, local government managers, state and
federal government bureaucrats, potential sponsors and partners, other
community agencies and media.
Les statistiques en
bibliothèques publiques en Tunisie : quelles méthodes
de collecte ? quels usages ?
Enseignant universiatire en bibliothéconomie (management des
bibliothèques) à l'Institut supérieur de documentation
Ancien bibliothécaire à la direction de la lecture publique
Les bibliothèques publiques en Tunisie sont structurées
au sein d'un réseau national fortement centralisé à
la tête duquel on trouve une administration centrale nommée
"Direction de la lecture publique" qui relève du ministère
de la culture. Cette direction centralise toutes les opérations
techniques et professionnelles (acquisition, traitement, informatisation,
animation, statistiques, etc.) Quant aux opérations financières
et administratives (exécution du budget, maintenance, recrutement,
recyclage, promotion, etc.) elles relèvent des compétences
de la direction des affaires administratives et financières au
ministère de la culture. Ce système trop centralisé
ne laisse aucune marge de manoeuvre à la direction de la lecture
publique en matière administrative et financière qui ne
laisse à son tour qu'une infime marge de manoeuvre aux bibliothèques
qu'elle supervise en matière technique (acquisition, animation,
etc.) Les pratiques en matière des statis tiques s'en trouvent
affectées. Elles souffrent à leur tour d'un immobilisme
vieux de trente ans.
Les données collectées (les indicateurs) ainsi que leurs
modes de collecte (imprimés codés et complexes remplis
par les usagers) posent d'énormes difficultés aux professionnels
pour trouver une matière exploitable et fiable.
De l'autre côté, l'usage fait de ces statistiques est un
usage purement bureaucratique et orienté vers des finalités
de légitimation des politiques et des mesures entreprises (rapport
d'activité annuel avec des chiffres très douteux sur le
nombre de lecteurs, d'emprunts, etc.) Il n'y a pas d'analyse en profondeur
des chifrres, de croisement d'indicateurs. Les données ne sont
pas exploitées pour des fins de pilotage et d'évaluation.
Notre communication présentera des modèles d'imprimés
utilisés dans la collecte des données au sein des bibliothèques
publiques tunisiennes. Nous soumettrons ces imprimés à
une analyse critique sur leurs objectifs, formes et utilités.
Ensuite, nous proposerons des mesures pour simplifier ces formulaires
et les réformer au niveau du contenu et de la finalité
(quels aspects devrait-on mesurer de l'activité des bibliothèques
publiques en Tunisie, comment et pour quels objectifs ?)
Nos propositions s'inspireront de deux points essentiels, à savoir
l'analyse de l'existant d'un côté et une démarche
comparative avec les recommandations des instances et des normes professionnelles
et les pratiques dans certains pays voisins de l'autre côté.
Defining market orientation
for the library sector
Barbara Anne Sen
Liverpool John Moores University
School of Business Information, Faculty of Business & Law
This paper is the result of exploratory research forming part of an
ongoing study into the value and relevance of market orientation as
a strategic option for library managers.
The aim of the study is to define the concept of market
orientation relative to the library sector. Understanding the core constructs
of market orientation is the preliminary stage in determining the suitability
of market orientation in the library sector, prior to the development
of a suitable scale to measure market orientation within libraries.
The first objective was to determine a working definition
of market orientation from within the extensive body of the management
literature and, secondly, to consider if that definition is shared and
understood by library professionals.
The methodology used a grounded theory approach, a
series of focus groups and field interviews were carried out in order
to validate the established constructs of market orientation that are
prevalent in the management literature. The purpose of the field research
was to highlight insights into market orientation in the library sector
that might not emerge given the lack of research on this topic in the
Focus groups were used to gather data from librarians working at different
levels in two different sectors, health and arts. Interviews were carried
out with library service managers in two other sectors, academic and
public. The object was to gain an indication of the breadth of opinion
across sectors. Other sectors may need to be consulted in further research.
A taxonomic map was developed to analyse the feedback from the focus
groups (Robson, 2002). Categories used are concomitant with both Kohli
and Jawaorski and Narver and Slater’s definitions of market orientation
which are both widely used in the management literature (Kohli and Jaworski
1990; Narver & Slater, 1990). An expert panel of marketing &
strategy academic and practitioners was used to categorise the data.
To support and expand on the findings from the focus groups a total
of four interviews were carried out from library managers in the academic
and public sectors. These interviews gave
a further insight into the understanding library service managers have
of market orientation and the value and importance that they place on
market orientation in service performance.
In addition, interviews took place with representatives from library
policy makers at the Chartered Institute of Library and Information
Professionals, the British Library and the Museums, Libraries and Archives
Council. The results of this data show the role of policy makers in
supporting strategic development and market orientation within the library
The interview data was analysed using the same three component criteria
as the focus groups and the taxonomic map developed as a result of that
A number of insights emerge from the study worthy
of discussion and future research relating to strategic management options,
development of the sector, performance, competition, leadership and
management skills. There are some differences in findings from a recent
Australian study which may suggest cultural variations (Harrison and
Harrison, Paul James and Robin N, Shaw (2004) Intra-organisational
marketing culture and market orientation: A case study of the implementation
of the marketing concept in a public library. Library Management.
25 8/9 391-198
Kohli, Ajay K, and Bernard J. Jaworski. (1990) Market orientation:
The construct, research propositions, and managerial implications. Journal
of Marketing, 54, 1-18.
Narver, John C. and Stanley F. Slater. (1990). The effect of market
orientation on business profitability. Journal of Marketing,
Robson, Colin, (2002) Real world research. 2nd Ed. Blackwell.
Is there any connection
between marketing attitudes and behavior? A study in Finnish libraries
Department of Information Studies
Åbo Akademi University
Though the marketing concept is a cornerstone of the marketing discipline,
yet we are all aware that it does not always dominate the libraries’
organizational thinking. As a consequence of this, the library literature
reflects remarkably little effort to develop a framework for understanding
the implementation of the marketing concept. This paper attempts to
find if there is any connection between the marketing attitudes and
behavior of librarians. The key issues which have been tackled are those
relating to the individual psychology, attitudes (need for marketing,
convenience to the consumers, physical environment, communication, quality
of library services, customer appreciation, developing relationship,
and implications of marketing, etc.) and behavior (customer philosophy,
inter-functional coordination, strategic orientation, responsiveness,
competition orientation and pricing orientation) of the library directors
on the usefulness, utility and relevance of employing marketing concept
in the library environment. Research data has been collected with the
help of half structured interviews in thirty three different libraries
of Finland. The libraries are divided into three categories based on
their level of market-oriented behavior: strong, medium and weak which
are compared further with their attitudes towards different aspects
of marketing. The implications of the findings are discussed which indicate
a positive relation between the marketing attitudes and behavior.
Strategies for the Business & Economics Library at the University
of Illinois at Urbana – Champaign
LIR Librarian &
Assistant Professor of Library Administration
101 Main Library
Head, Business & Economics Library &
Associate Professor of Library Administration
101 Main Library
The University Library at the University of Illinois at Urbana –
Champaign is the largest public university library and the third largest
academic library in North America. The Business & Economics Library
(BEL), one of over 40 departmental libraries of the University Library,
has sought to reshape its image from a “house of books”
to an electronic business information services center. The authors conducted
extensive research to study user experience and expectations of library
use, and they analyzed the data to formulate appropriate marketing strategies.
Based on the results of the survey, the authors developed marketing
strategies using 4 P’s of marketing mix and SWOT analysis. The
authors also identified and built strong relationships with marketing
partners and advocates of the library who could influence user behavior
significantly. The authors used multiple data to evaluate the success
of their marketing campaign, such as the number and type of reference
questions, demands for library instruction sessions, requests for individual
consultation, and collaboration with teaching faculty to integrate library
services into courses.
Using Data-Driven Models
of Client Needs and Values to Market Library Products and Services
Guillaume Van Moorsel, MLIS, AHIP
Assistant Director, Health Sciences Center Library
Clinical Assistant Professor, Health Policy & Management
Stony Brook University
Libraries often do not know how clients value their product/service
offerings. Yet at a time when the mounting costs for library support
are increasingly difficult to justify to the parent institution, the
library’s ability to gauge the value of its offerings to clients
has never been more critical. Client Value Models (CVMs), data-driven
representations of the worth of a supplied product/service from a client’s
perspective, establish a common definition of value elements –
or a “value vocabulary” – for libraries and their
clients. CVMs can thereby guide product/service acquisition and development
by enabling rational, evidence-based library planning. While derived
from business and industry, CVM applications are well suited to libraries
and fit comfortably with professional library paradigms. These simple,
powerful marketing instruments allow libraries to understand, anticipate,
and address the information needs most valued by their clients. Through
a theoretical consideration and practical illustrations, this paper
offers a framework for libraries to respond more effectively to the
shifting information needs of constituents through the development of
Lost In Cyberspace?
Try Your Library Space at www : Marketing Libraries Through Non-Academic
Head, Access and Collection Services
Myoung C. Wilson
Chair, Information Services Group
New Brunswick Libraries
C/o Alexander Library
Category: Best practice development and research
The concept of “marketing” or “public relations”
is still an underdeveloped (indeed, perhaps unrecognized) area in academic
librarianship. In order to introduce library resources and to teach
library research skills, academic librarians have been increasingly
successful in building partnerships with academic units and course instructors.
Building partnerships with non-academic units has not, however, been
frequently explored. .
This paper examines library collaborations with campus partners who
are not directly involved in student academic activities yet who have
an enormous impact on the quality of student life and on factors that
influence academic success.
The paper will explore the concept of physical and virtual library
outposts, of using campus physical spaces, such as campus centers and
campus buses (which are not normally considered to be part of student
intellectual life) to inform students about library resources. How these
concepts were applied in developing campus outreach programs is a central
The paper will analyze responses from users and campus partners, identify
problem areas in working with non-academic units and will suggest areas
for future exploration and research areas.
The strategic dimensions
of performance measurement
Kompetenznetzwerk für Bibliotheken beim Deutschen Bibliotheksverband
The paper looks at performance measurement (PM) and statistics from
a rather sociological point of view. The tools used are taken from systems
theory, history of science and cultural studies. Four theses are at
the centre of the work. They are just plainly stated here and will be
illustrated and explained by examples during the presentation:
1. PM is about knowledge and about politics
PM and other measurement tools like cost-accounting, definition of products
etc. have two sides:
a) They are necessary to describe the library, its users and its work.
In order to do this, they create a representation, an image of the library
by the means of numbers. The aim is here to create knowledge about the
library as best as possible, i.e. to make the results of PM as similar
to the real library situation as possible.
b) They are also necessary to make the right decisions for the library,
both by library management and by the funding institution. In decision-making,
every party involved has their own, often differing interests at stake,
which they want to be realized. PM is used here to help the stakeholders
prove their points. PM and statistics are therefore a playground for
games of power between all parties involved in decision-making for the
library. This is possible because:
2. PM is about Agreement, not about Truth
Methods and tools of PM and Statistics are not fixed and given by science,
be it business administration, social science, mathematics or library
science. These only provide the framework for the definition of tools
and indicators. The tools themselves depend strongly on the interests
and questions of the parties involved and they are negotiated between
these partners during the process of measuring. They are to a considerable
extent arbitrary. During the negotiation process, the stakeholders define
what kind of picture they want to create of the library. As the results
of measuring depend on the way the tools are worked out, and may have
a severe impact on the library, (e.g. its funding, staffing and reputation),
definitions and methods of measuring are keenly watched and hotly debated
by all participants. Although “objectivity” and “timeless
truth” are not achieved by pm and statistics, the negotiation
process forces all parties to agree on common ways to count and measure
a thing, and so creates a common, inter-subjective view on the library.
3. PM does not yield information, it reduces information
In order to provide a basis for decision-making, PM and statistics create
a numeric image of the library. Usually, this is seen as a process of
generating information about the library, e.g. “finding facts”
about how the library is being used by customers. From the point of
view of systems theory however, PM and S are very efficient means of
reducing complexity, i.e. they reduce the immensely complex social system
of a library – its staff, workflows, problems, strengths, weaknesses,
the users and their motivations, etc. to a small set of numbers. Painfull
as this may be, this is in fact one of the strongest points of measurement,
because it would not be possible to make a decision, if all the countless
facettes of a library were to be taken into account at all times. This,
however, has two consequences:
a) negotiating about pm-tools means fighting over what is being included
and what is being left out of the picture
b) it is, by defintion, impossible to create a completely accurate image
of libraries by pm – which means, each and every pm tool, how
ever well constructed and defined, will fail to accurately reproduce
some of the features of the library measured. If applied to more than
one library, it is bound to do some library wrong. This is not a shortcoming
of the pm-tool, that can be overcome by even more definitions and preciser
rules. It is necessary, because a pm-tool cannot reproduce all features
of all libraries if it is to serve its purpose – making things
less complex and easier to decide. Each pm tool creates its own kind
4. PM can never speak for itself
PM produces a simple, manageable, but strongly reduced view on the library,
and this view is bound to be blurred at some points. Therefore, pm-results
are never ever self explanatory. Measuring libraries is a way of encoding
information about the library in numeric form, and taking it out of
its context. To generate a meaning out of a pm-result, i.e. to give
meaning back to the numbers, they have to be de-coded again, i.e. they
have to be interpreted and put back into a wider context. The numbers
have to be re-enriched by arguments, comparisons and stories. This process
is as arbitrary as the encoding (the construction of the measuring-tool).
It is also done via negotiation of the stakeholders involved.
Consequences that arise out of the theses for PM and S
Discussions about PM methods are never finished, because negotiation
is an integral part of their creation. Taking that into account, it
is necessary to shift some attention from the method of measurement
or statistics to the negotiation and interpretation process that surrounds
A theorem to be discussed could be that the strategic function of pm
and statistics reflects on the way a library system deals with pm: e.g.
the more insecure a library system is in a country (e.g. because there
is no library legislation), the more reluctant it would be towards pm,
because the more risk is at stake for libraries when results are bad.
Evaluation of libraries:
Experiences from applying a method for non-market valuation developed
Oslo University College
In a situation characterized by a growing pressure on public budgets,
most public institutions are under increasing pressure to document their
value. Libraries are no exception in this respect and the situation
is reflected in library research. From different theoretical and methodological
positions researchers are striving to develop instruments, which will
make it possible to make valid statements about the value of libraries.
Within the social sciences, economists have developed the most sophisticated
methods for determining the value of non-market goods.
In this paper we discuss the fruitfulness of and some problems connected
to making use of methods developed in economics for evaluating non-market
goods when trying to determine the value of public libraries. The purpose
is to provide a better understanding of the total value of a library,
both its use and non-use values, as viewed by patrons as well as by
non-users and potential users in the library’s environment. By
surveying a representative sample of the library users and non-users
and aggregate the individual preferences, an estimate of the library’s
total value in the organisation can be reached.
We have conducted an empirical study of Norwegian public libraries
applying one such method, the contingent valuation. In this study, the
value of public libraries’ benefits was compared with the costs
of providing them, thus exploring whether they had a net value. Results
from the study show that the benefits from the libraries are clearly
higher than the costs to provide them library services. The paper discusses
the possibility of fruitful use of the contingent valuation method in
evaluation of different types of libraries. Crucial for the success
of the method is the construction of a scenario and a survey instrument
that can measure the value of the actual library in a valid way. Based
on our theoretical discussions and empirical study we conclude that
such approaches developed in economics can contribute to the theoretical
and methodological arsenal of library and information science.